1 5 Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease Amanda Jacobs Public Health 20130000

Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease
Amanda Jacobs
Public Health
Qatar University
ENGL 203 – 100
Mr. Yousef Ali
October 18, 2020
Term Paper Outline
Major: Public Health
Research Question: What are the possible factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease?
Aim: The aim of this paper is to identify the possible risk factors of cardiovascular disease.
Type of Focus: Causes (factors)
Introduction: Type your introduction (including the thesis statement) in the space below.
As the world struggles to deal with the impact of the Covid-19, many health experts have seen a higher risk of death among those who suffer from chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), or diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels. On their own, even without a Covid-19 outbreak, CVDs pose serious health risks as they are the number one cause of death around the globe (World Health Organization, 2017). This helps to explain why public health professionals direct much of their effort and energy to raising people’s awareness about the causes and prevention of CVDs. Some of the common factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease could include behavioral and lifestyle choices, mental health issues and chronic disease.
Main Points:
Human behavior
Tobacco use
The harmful substances in tobacco can damage and narrow the blood vessels (Gallagher, 2019).
Response to the evidence: Quitting smoking can decrease the risk of cardiac death.
Types of food
Diets rich in fruits, vegetables and low in fat and sodium reduce the risk of high blood pressure (Villegas & Tainta, 2018).
Response to the evidence: Reduced consumption of meat and fat is recommended. For example, Mediterranean diets are healthy as they mostly consist of legumes.
Socioeconomic status have influence on types of food (Psaltopoulou et al., 2016)
Response to the evidence: The socioeconomic status affects a person’s ability to afford certain types of food. For example, people with low-income may opt for fast food because it is affordable.
Psychological and emotional well-being.
Depression can affect a person’s health (Dhar & Barton, 2016).
Depression can lead to excessive alcohol intake, which increases CVD risk (Dhar & Barton, 2016).
Response to the evidence: Alcohol and depression can prove to be a fatal combination. Therefore, depressed individuals need to seek treatment.
Acute stress
Psychological factors significantly increase the risk of CVD through both direct and indirect pathways (Balog et al., 2011).
Response to the evidence: Acute stress could happen because of difficulties. Dealing with stress should be taken seriously
Non-communicable disease
Overweight and obesity
Obesity is a traditional risk factor for CVD and it is well associated with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. (Psaltopoulou et al., 2016).
Response to the evidence: obesity can cause other disease that could affect heart and increase the risk of CVD. Controlling one’s weight can help reduce the risk of getting CVD.
Diabetes is a major cause of heart disease and stroke (Centers for Disease Control, 2011).
Response to the evidence: There is a correlation between diabetes and developing CVD.
Unhealthy food and low physical activity independently increase the risk of diabetes.
Prevention and management of diabetes are critical in reducing the global burden of CVD.
Balog, P., Falger, P. R. J., Szabó, G., Rafael, B., Székely, A., & Konkolÿ Thege, B. (2017). Are vital exhaustion and depression independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease morbidity? Health Psychology, 36(8), 740-748.
Centers for Disease Control. (2011). National diabetes fact sheet: National estimates and general information on diabetes and prediabetes in the United States, 2011. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2011.pdf
Dhar, A., & Barton, D. (2016). Depression and the link with cardiovascular disease. Front Psychiatry 7(33), 1-9. http://doi.org/0-10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00033
Gallagher, J. (2019, November 16). Does vaping help or hurt a person’s heart? BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/health-50436296
Psaltopoulou, T., Hatzis, G., Papageorgiou, N., Androulakis, E., Briasoulis, A., & Tousoulis, D. (2017). Socioeconomic status and risk factors for cardiovascular disease: Impact of dietary mediators. Hellenic Journal of Cardiology, 58(1), 32-42. http://doi.org/0.1016/j.hjc.2017.01.022
Villegas, A. & Tainta, A. (2018). The prevention of cardiovascular disease through the Mediterranean diet. Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/C2016-0-00845-8
World Health Organization (2017). Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs).