8 Introduction The problem and Purpose: Stroke is one of the most

8
Introduction
The problem and Purpose: Stroke is one of the most significant causes of death and disability in the United States (Jaracz et al., 2012). Approximately 790,000 people in the United States have a stroke each year (Laffoon & Nathan-Roberts, 2018). The number of people suffering from stroke is increasing every year. This study’s primary purpose is to determine the role of social support in moderating the relationship between the caregiver burden and anxiety/depression among caregivers of stroke patients. Caregivers of stroke patients have a high chance of suffering from anxiety and depression due to the burden associated with providing care for stroke patients (Erler, Sullivan, Mckinnon, & Inzana, 2019).
Synopsis of Current Literature: According to Tosun and Temel (2017), stroke is a significant cause of disability and dependency in carrying out most activities of daily living. Due to the increased chance of surviving after a stroke, stroke rehabilitation and care have become extremely important. According to Del-Pino-Casado (2019), the process of caregiving is linked to adverse consequences for family caregivers’ physical and mental health.
Preview sections of chapter 2
Chapter 2 will start by discussing the literature search strategy followed by a discussion of the caregiving stress process model original (Pearlin et al., 1981). I will then review literature addressing the needs of stroke patients to determine the unique needs of stroke patients. After that, the discussion will base on the caregiver burden, stroke patients and caregiver burden and I will also discuss caregivers’ mental health due to the caregiver burden. Finally, I will highlight the need for social support for caregivers of stroke patients.
Literature Search Strategy
List of library databases and search engines used
List of key search terms and combination of terms
List of key search terms and combination of terms Family Caregiver, Mental Health, Caregiver Burden, etc.
Explanation of the lack of current research regarding Caregiver burden, Social Support with Stroke patients and the use of dissertations to show a lack of peer reviewed articles.
B. List of key search terms included stroke, social support, caregiver burden, anxiety, depression.
Theoretical Foundation
Caregiving Stress Process Model: This designed model means determining the informal caregiving process and how it affects caregiver health (Raina et al., 2004). According to the stress process model, several stressors have the possibility of impeding a caregiver’s ability to adapt (Pearlin et al., 1981). There are two types of stressors, primary and secondary stressors. The primary stressors refer directly to the individual suffering from a life-changing ailment or disability. On the other hand, secondary stressors arise from any demands associated with taking on the role of a caregiver. These two stressors manifest themselves through well-being, physical and mental health. The caregiving stress process model primarily dictates that various life events can cause adverse changes in people’s roles. However, the negative changes or effects can be mitigated through social support (Wolf & Middleton, 2018).
Needs of Stroke Patients in Recovery
When the blood flow to a region of your brain is blocked or diminished, brain tissue is deprived of oxygen and nutrients, resulting in a stroke. Within minutes, brain cells begin to die (Joffres et al., 2013). A stroke is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention. Brain injury and other consequences can be avoided if intervention is taken early. When an individual suffers from a stroke, what usually happens is that a blood vessel carrying oxygen and other nutrients becomes blocked by a clot, or it ruptures and, as a result, fails to transport oxygen to the brain cell. Eventually, some of the brain cells die.
Given that the brain is a complex organ that controls multiple body functions, when some of the brain cells die, some of the body functions are severely affected and fail to function like they once did, thus causing disability (Lloyd et al., 2019).
Most stroke victims are unable to work independently after a stroke. Although families of stroke victims may seek institutional care, most of the care is provided by family members (Khanittanuphong & Leelasamran, 2016).
Caregiver Burden and Mental Health
Caregivers are obliged to undertake multiple responsibilities surrounding feeding and hygiene without prior preparation. In addition to needing help in performing basic tasks, stroke victims require rehabilitation to relearn basic skills (Tosun & Temel, 2017).
During the process, most caregivers usually experience mental health conditions, which end up destabilizing them
Apart from mental health issues, they also experience psychological fatigue
Professional caregivers
It is estimated that 25% to 50% of caregivers meet the diagnostic criteria for major depression, with 40% to 70% displaying significant depressive symptoms (Griffin et al., 2017). Caregivers have an increased chance of having psychological disorders, chronic illnesses, and substance abuse. Most professional caregivers are usually prepared for the task at hand. However, depending with the patient’s nature, most of them end up experiencing mental and psychological fatigue.
Family caregivers
Chronic stress is a common side effect of caregiving, and it affects the caregiver’s physical and mental health. One of the most prevalent side effects of caring is depression. Caring for someone with dementia is more difficult, and it has far more negative health consequences than other forms of caring (Roth et al., 2018). Considering that most family caregivers of stroke victims have inadequate preparation or no information on caring for a stroke victim and the common challenges, it eventually becomes a burden. The burden mainly refers to the work involved in adapting to care for the stroke victim (Okpataku et al., 2019).
Mental Health of Caregivers
The caregiver burden is usually categorized into objective and subjective obligations (Khanittanuphong & Leelasamran, 2016). The objective responsibility refers to the physical burden associated with caring for a stroke victim. On the other hand, the subjective burden refers to the mental, emotional, social impact of caring for a stroke victim.
Providing long-term care at home for stroke victims can be a source of chronic stress (Arba et al., 2016).
According to several research studies, the significant caregivers of stroke patients have a greater or equal chance of suffering from mental illness than stroke patients (Olai et al., 2015).
Due to the extensive sacrifice and commitment needed in caring for stroke victims, without enough social support, most caregivers quickly falling into depression and anxiety (Del-Pino-Casado et al., 2019).
The Influence of Social Support on Caregiving
Typically, social support is a significant aspect of solid relationships and psychological well-being (Khanittanuphong & Leelasamran, 2016).
Social support is a network of family and friends that one can turn to in times of need. Social support plays a crucial role in reducing the burden of care faced by caregivers.
In the caregiver setting, anxiety and depression have been linked to inadequate social support. The increase in anxiety, stress, and depression is mainly due to deteriorating interpersonal relationships (Hu et al., 2018).
When caregivers take on the role of taking care of their family members affected by stroke, they cannot dedicate most of their time to their relationships. As a result, the relationships deteriorate, thus reducing the amount of social support available from friends and family.
Summary and Conclusion
Stroke patients in recovery have diverse needs, mainly because most of them cannot perform basic. Understanding the needs of stroke patients is crucial in comprehending the caregiver burden of stroke patients. Similar to the diverse needs of stroke patients in recovery, caregivers of stroke patients have various conditions such as professional support, community network, and health. Several research studies have linked inadequate social support to anxiety and depression suffered by caregivers.
References
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Del-Pino-Casado, R., Rodríguez Cardosa, M., López-Martínez, C., & Orgeta, V. (2019). The association between subjective caregiver burden and depressive symptoms in carers of older relatives: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS ONE, 14(5), e0217648. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217648
Erler, K. S., Sullivan, V., Mckinnon, S., & Inzana, R. (2019). Social support as a predictor of community participation after stroke. Frontiers in Neurology, 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.01013
Griffin, J. M., Lee, M. K., Bangerter, L. R., Van Houtven, C. H., Friedemann-Sánchez, G., Phelan, S. M., … & Meis, L. A. (2017). Burden and mental health among caregivers of veterans with traumatic brain injury/polytrauma. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 87(2), 139.
Hu, P., Yang, Q., Kong, L., Hu, L., & Zeng, L. (2018). Relationship between the anxiety/depression and care burden of the primary caregiver of stroke patients. Medicine, 97(40), e12638. https://doi.org/10.1097/md.0000000000012638
Jaracz, K., Grabowska-Fudala, B., & Kozubski, W. (2012). Caregiver burden after stroke: Towards a structural model. Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska, 46(3), 224-232. https://doi.org/10.5114/ninp.2012.29130
Joffres, M., Falaschetti, E., Gillespie, C., Robitaille, C., Loustalot, F., Poulter, N., … & Campbell, N. (2013). Hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in national surveys from England, the USA and Canada, and correlation with stroke and ischaemic heart disease mortality: a cross-sectional study. BMJ open, 3(8), e003423.
Khanittanuphong, P., & Leelasamran, W. (2016). Assessing Caregiver Burden and Relationship between Caregiver Burden and Basic Activities of Daily Living in Stroke Patients with Spasticity. J Med Assoc Thai, 99(8), 926-932. https://www.thaiscience.info/Journals/Article/JMAT/10986122.pdf
Laffoon, J. M., & Nathan-Roberts, D. (2018, June). Increasing the use of evidence based practices in stroke rehabilitation. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care (Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 249-254). Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications.
Lloyd, J., Maria Pinto, A., Nair, S., & Tarey, S. (2019). A Qualitative Study on Palliative Needs of Stroke Patients in an Indian Tertiary Care Setting – Doctors’ Perspective. Indian Journal of Palliative Care, 25(1). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388609/
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Olai, L., Borgquist, L., & Svärdsudd, K. (2015). Life situations and the care burden for stroke patients and their informal caregivers in a prospective cohort study. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, 120(4), 290-298. https://doi.org/10.3109/03009734.2015.1049388
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