9 Depression Tests Alexus Forbes Depression Tests Introduction The category selected for

9
Depression Tests
Alexus Forbes
Depression Tests
Introduction
The category selected for this assignment is the depression test. There are three depression tests outlined; the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BD1-II), the Beck Hopelessness Scale, and the Children’s Depression Inventory-2 (CDI2).
The purpose for Testing and Content, Skills, and Constructs Assessed
Psychologists administer the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-11) to measure the characteristic attitudes and depression symptoms of an individual who meets the diagnostic criteria of depressive symptoms (Johnon-Koku, 2016). It helps the psychologists reveal the intensity of the depression by administering a 21 item multiple-choice inventory. The patient is required to rate the rigorousness of their symptoms within the past week. The bibliographical mining reveals that Beck et al. (1961) developed this test initially in 1961, referenced as the original BDI. Although the original BDI went through some updates, they were not substantial such as the updates in 1996 to give rise to the BDI-II. The difference between the original BDI and the BDI-II is that the BDI-II did not include elements that relate to loosing weight, body appearance, hypochondria, and difficulties working (Beck et al., 1996). This significant update was to allow the assessment of the symptoms to match up to the DSM-IV criteria. The items in the test measure the mental, emotional, somatic, and vegetative indicators of depression (Smarr & Keefer, 2011). More specifically, the test can help the psychology professional measure constructs such as guilt, self-hate, suicidal ideation, irritability, social withdrawal, loss of libido, fatigue levels, and patient moods. It takes approximately 10 minutes for the patient to complete the test, and they must have a 5th -6th grade level of education to understand the contents of the test.
Beck developed the Beck Hopelessness Scale, where Pearson published it. It also takes on the self-inventory approach, although there are twenty items on the self-report. The psychologist administers this test to measure the three significant aspects of hopelessness. These include; an individual’s feelings about their future, loss of inspiration, and their expectations. It then helps the psychologist to understand the degree of the individual’s adverse outlooks and the levels of pessimism about the future. Studies have also revealed that psychology professionals can use the test to indicate suicidal risk and ideation among depressed patients and drug and substance abuse addicts. It measures the construct of hopelessness through an analysis of particular cognitive processes of the depressed patient (Balsamo et al., 2020).
The other test under this category is the Children’s Depression Inventory-2 (CDI2) published by Multi-Health Systems. The test is most appropriate for children between 7-17 years. It is a short self-report helping in the evaluation of the mental, emotional, and behavioral symptoms of children and adolescents perceived to have depressive disorders. The bibliographical mining reveals that the CDI2 evolved from the CDI initially developed in 1966. The CDI2 was published in 1992. Psychologists administer this test on children to gain supplementary information for clinical diagnosis and inform the therapeutic interventions for children. Through this test, the psychologist can also pinpoint the symptoms of major depressive disorders in children (Bae, 2012). The psychological professionals can use these tests to determine the ability of a child to experience joy, complete tasks, and maintain close relationships and the levels of the esteem of the child. This helps the psychologist determine the intensity of the depressive symptoms of the child (Ahlen & Ghaderi, 2017).
Normative Sample, Sampling Procedures, and Intended Population
The BDI-II was validated using college students, adult
psychiatric outpatients, and adolescent psychiatric out-
patients (3)
The BDI-II was validated using college students, adult
psychiatric outpatients, and adolescent psychiatric out-
patients (3)
The BDI-II was validated using college students, adult
psychiatric outpatients, and adolescent psychiatric out-
patients (3)
The BDI-11 is appropriate for individuals 13-80 years. It applies to people of all races, gender, and geographic regions. However, the dominant language in the BDI-II is English, although it has been interpreted in approximately 14 languages including Xhosa language. Smarr & Keefer (2011) note that the BDI-II normative sample includes college students, adult and adolescent psychiatric outpatients from various healthcare facilities in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Kentucky. While this normative sample size is diverse and quite inclusive regarding age, it lacks adequate geographical representation as only three states were used. There were 317 females, 183 males where 91 percent were Caucasian, 4 percent were African American, 4 percent were Asian American, and 1% represented Latinos (The National Child Traumatic Stress Network, n.d). The normative sample matches the characteristics of a population that a psychologist would serve. The ethnic diversity is representative of the Census reports where Caucasians are the majority in the U.S.
The Beck Hopelessness Inventory is designed for individuals between the ages of 17-80. The normative sample comprised 238 undergraduate students. The population constituted 40.3 percent whites, 38.2 percent African Americans, 14.7 percent Asians, and 6.7 percent of other ethnic diversities. The normative sample represented ethnic diversity but did not represent age diversity. This normative ample also lacks geographic and gender diversity. Hence, it is not an accurate representation of the sample that a psychological professional would serve. The sample is also inadequate to generalize the characteristics of the population based on the issues presented above.
The CD12 test is appropriate and recommended for children and adolescents (7-17 years). The normative sample for the CDI2 self-report in both the full and short length states from the MHS website includes 1100 children and adolescents of the above bracket. The normative sample represents children and adolescents from 26 states with a 50-50 distribution of their gender. The racial distribution is also evenly proportional as the sample closely matches the U.S Census distribution. Generally, the normative sample had an adequate representation. It spread of the four major regions of the U.S. There was the acquisition of a clinical sample of 319 youth between 7-17 years from the normative sample, where the median age was 12.63 years with a standard deviation of 3.02 years.
The clinical sample has 33.86 percent diagnosed with major depressive disorder, 28.21 percent with ADHD, 14.11 percent with conduct disorder, 13.79 percent with generalized anxiety disorder, and 10.03 percent with the oppositional defiant disorder (MHS, n.d). Based on the anticipated populations served by a psychologist, the characteristic of the normative sample would not match the characteristics of the population. I also do not believe that the sample size was adequate to generalize the population. A sample size of 1100 is less than 10 percent, usually the recommended sample size for studies. This then led to data that did not reflect the characteristics of the population adequately.
Test-User Knowledge, Skills, and Training
The Pearson website notes that it is committed to the maintenance of professional standards in testing. The individuals that it qualifies to interpret and assess using the Beck Depression Inventory are those with a level B qualification. Similarly, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, also published by Pearson, is appropriate for purchasing people with a level B qualification (Pearson, n.d). The individuals should have a graduate degree in psychology, education, counseling, occupational therapy, social work, and other closely related fields. The CDI2 requires an accurate interpretation of the results after the assessment. The test publisher recommends that only trained professionals who understand the properties of the CDI2 are qualified in interpreting the results meaning that raw scores of the tests are essentially meaningless without the professional interpretation. The MHS website notes that the CDI2 demands a level B qualification. This means that individuals purchasing and interpreting the results should have a graduate degree in psychology, education, counseling, occupational therapy, social work, or a closely related field. From the above qualifications from the different publishers, it is evident that I would be qualified to administer, score and interpret each test. The qualification calls for a graduate degree in psychology, education, and related fields where at the end of this course, I will have qualified.
Comparisons and Contrasts of the Three Tests
Undoubtingly, the three tests presented above are all appropriate for use as a psychological professional. All the tests have various similarities. They can all be used to define the severity of depression through an analysis of the depressive symptoms of the patient. Notably, the Beck Hopelessness Scale is slightly different as it focuses more on the feelings f hopelessness. The three tests are also similar. They require a level B qualification to assess access and interpret the results meaning they would be most suitable for the graduate study level. The other notable difference is that the CDI2 is limited for children and adolescents, whereas the other tests exclude children. The BDI-II and the Hopelessness Scale focus on adolescents and adults to identify the depressive symptoms. From the information gathered on the normative sample, I feel that the BDI-11 test is the most appropriate choice of testing. The normative sample represents various diversities in the populations that I am likely to handle as a psychology professional. The test is also appropriate for clinical and non-clinical environments, as presented from the diverse normative sample. As such, it will help obtain accurate information on the depressive levels of the patient adequately in my future practice.
References
Ahlen, J., & Ghaderi, A. (2017). Evaluation of the Children’s Depression Inventory—Short Version (CDI–S). Psychological Assessment, 29(9), 1157–1166. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000419
Bae, Y. (2012). Test Review: Children’s Depression Inventory 2 (CDI 2). Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 30(3), 304–308. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734282911426407
Balsamo, M., Carlucci, L., Innamorati, M., Lester, D., & Pompili, M. (2020). Further Insights into the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS): Unidimensionality among Psychiatric Inpatients. Frontiers in psychiatry, 11, 727. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00727
Beck, A.T., Steer, R.A., & Brown, G.K. (1996). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation
Beck, A.T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961) An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561-571.
Johnson-Koku, G. (2016). Beck Depression Inventory. Occupational Medicine
Multi-Health Systems. (MHS). (n.d). Children’s Depression Inventory 2™ (CDI 2). Retrieved from https://mhs.com/info/cdi2samples/
National Child Traumatic Stress Network. (n.d). Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition. Retrieved from https://www.nctsn.org/measures/beck-depression-inventory-second-edition
Pearson. (n.d). Beck Depression Inventory-II. Retrieved from https://www.pearsonassessments.com/store/usassessments/en/Store/Professional-Assessments/Personality–Biopsychosocial/Beck-Depression-Inventory-II/p/100000159.html#
Pearson. (n.d). Beck Hopelessness Scale. Retrieved from https://www.pearsonassessments.com/store/usassessments/en/Store/Professional-Assessments/Personality–Biopsychosocial/Beck-Hopelessness-Scale/p/100000105.html
Smarr, K., & Keefer, A. (2011). Measures of depression and depressive symptoms: Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9)†. Arthritis Care & Research