All vectors (magnitude and direction) of the Ekman spiral yield a net

All vectors (magnitude and direction) of the Ekman spiral yield a net current direction that is ______ degree to the ______ of the prevailing wind in the Northern Hemisphere. This composite current is the ______ and it controls the motion of the surface ocean.
a.
90, right, Ekman transport
b.
60, left, Geostrophic component
c.
30, right, Coriolis effect
d.
0, left, upwelling
What is the driving force for the Hadley cell circulation pattern?
a.
Glacial movement
b.
Ocean gyres and western boundary current
c.
Tectonic convection
d.
Tropical heating
Due to the ______ effect, the surface wind is deflected to the ______ in the Northern Hemisphere, and to the ______ in the Southern Hemisphere.
a.
gravity, left, right
b.
Hadley, left, right
c.
Ekman, right, left
d.
Coriolis, right, left
Nuclear fusion is the process of:
a.
bringing light atoms together to make heavier atoms
b.
splitting of heavy atoms to make light atoms
c.
using solar energy to excite atomic nuclei
d.
producing nuclear fuel
Major surface currents are set in motion by ________.
a.
the wakes of ships
b.
salinity differences
c.
winds
d.
shapes of coastlines
Greenhouse gases are classified as any gas that: 
a.
traps visible rays and thereby promotes global warming
b.
traps gamma rays and thereby reduces global warming
c.
traps infrared rays and thereby promotes global warming
d.
traps infrared rays and thereby reduces global warming
The Celsius degree is the same size as a Kelvin, but 0° Celsius is much warmer than 0° K.
True
False
Which of the following are the greenhouse gases?
a.
CO2, CH4, H2O
b.
N2, O2
c.
H2SO4
d.
H2CO3
How are the atmospheric temperature and density differences that force the atmosphere to circulate, carrying warmer air toward the poles and colder air toward the equator, initially produced?
a.
genesis of tropical cyclone
b.
melting of Antarctic ice sheet
c.
latitudinal energy gradient
d.
longitudinal energy gradient
Prevailing winds circulate across the entire globe. The one that is driven by the Hadley cell circulation and the Coriolis force is called:
a.
westerly wind
b.
equatorial current
c.
trade wind
What is the most obvious character of the ITCZ when observed from space?
a.
extensive areas of cloud cover and heavy precipitation
b.
extensive areas of cloud cover and intense wind
c.
extensive areas of snowfall
d.
minimal areas of cloud cover and light precipitation
In the Earth’s climate system, the term longwave radiation refers to:
a.
the incoming solar radiation received by Earth
b.
the back radiation emitted by Earth
c.
the albedo of Earth
d.
radiation reflected by Earth’s atmosphere
e.
both A and D
The Arctic region experiences a natural freeze-thaw cycle throughout the summer and winter months. Being that such changes are part of a natural cycle, please explain 1) what is the pressing issue associated with sea ice extension in the Arctic. Be sure to use your own words (no cut-and-paste) and 2) explain why we need to pay specific attention to this issue. If helpful, please refer to specific years that were considered very unusual for sea ice extension that made the scientific community deeply concerned (bonus point). 
150 words for this question
The following figure shows the shapes of the blackbody spectra of Earth and the Sun. Identify the band of wavelength for the Sun and Earth, and fill blanks (A and B) with surface temperatures in kelvin.
a.
255, 58000
b.
58000, 255
c.
5800, 255
d.
580, 255
In terms of running the Earth’s atmospheric processes, the significant energy comes from the Sun and ________.
a.
the Moon
b.
the next closest star
c.
reflection from Venus
d.
no other source
Past climate change: 
a.
informs scientists about climate drivers and system interactions, which are necessary for predicting future climate change
b.
occurred only in the last 300 million years
c.
has been influenced by both natural and anthropogenic drivers
d.
All of the above
e.
Both a and c
The tropical air near the surface rises due to the large solar input, creating a ______ region. The rising air is replaced by surface air moving into the region of low pressure from ______ region. The merging of air masses that are moving inward toward a low-pressure region is called ______.
a.
low-pressure, high-pressure, divergence
b.
high-pressure, low-pressure, divergence
c.
low-pressure, high-pressure, convergence
d.
high-pressure, low-pressure, convergence
Energy from the Sun moves through space in a wide range of wave forms that vary by wavelength (electromagnetic spectrum). The energy emitted from the Sun that drives Earth’s climate system consists of ______ and ______.
a.
X-rays, ultraviolet radiation
b.
visible light, microwaves radar
c.
visible light, infra-red
d.
visible light, ultraviolet radiation
The rate of energy emission per unit surface area from a “blackbody” is proportional to:
a.
its color
b.
its temperature
c.
its density
d.
its mass
A specific flooding caused by a heavy rain is a type of ______, and a tendency for flooding to occur in a specific region is a type of ______.
a.
climate, weather
b.
weather, climate
c.
global warming, climate change
d.
climate change, global warming
Oxygen (O2) and nitrogen (N2) are:
a.
the major gaseous byproducts of combustion.
b.
the major gases that make up both troposphere and stratosphere
c.
the major gases that make up only the troposphere
d.
the major gases that make up only the stratosphere
What is not the greenhouse effect?
a.
The discrepancy between incoming solar energy and outgoing radiation energy.
b.
A naturally occurring process that aids in the heating of the Earth’s surface and atmosphere.
c.
Earth’s atmosphere contains greenhouse gases that absorb the longwave back radiation emitted from the surface.
d.
A phenomenon only caused by human CO2 production.
The wavelength at which Earth’s emitted radiation is a maximum is ______ the wavelength at which the Sun’s emitted radiation peaks.
a.
longer than
b.
shorter than
c.
the same as
d.
none of the above
Why does Earth experiences seasons?
a.
The seasons are controlled by the distance between the Earth and Sun. During winter, the Earth is farther from the Sun than in summer.
b.
Seasonality occurs because the Earth’s axis is tilted 23.5° as it revolves around the Sun.
c.
The Earth’s orbit around the Sun is a highly elongated (skinny) ellipse, making the distance between Earth and Sun vary dramatically over the course of a year.
d.
As the Earth orbits the Sun, the elliptical orbit causes the Earth to spend a shorter span of time (thus less heating) during the winter and more time (thus more heating) during the summer.
An idealized body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation and emits the maximum amount of radiation possible, at every wavelength for its temperature is a(n):
a.
blackbody
b.
isotherm
c.
celsius
d.
albedo
Respond to the following questions based on the image below: 1) Around what latitudes do we find a positive net energy balance? 2) What two climate components contribute to the distribution of Earth’s energy from a higher to lower energy status? 
100 words
What causes Earth’s climate to change?
a.
Changes in Earth’s orbit around the sun
b.
Changes in the strength of the sun
c.
Changes in plate tectonics
d.
Human activities
e.
All of the above
The primary reason the surface of Venus is much hotter than that of Mercury is because Venus:
a.
has a greater average albedo than does Earth.
b.
is father away from the Sun than is Earth.
c.
has greater levels of CO2 in the atmosphere than does Earth.
d.
is a larger planet than Earth.
e.
None of the answers is correct.
What is the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere today?
a.
310 ppm
b.
410 ppm
c.
510 ppm
d.
810 ppm