Chapter 10 1. Explain the five techniques of neutralization. Which technique do

Chapter 10
1. Explain the five techniques of neutralization. Which technique do you believe is most commonly used (and why)? Which technique do you believe is the least commonly used (and why)?
2. Explain the four elements of Hirschi’s social bond theory. Suppose you are a high school principal. How could you reduce crime/delinquency in your school using this theory?
3. From a theory building perspective, what are the strengths/weaknesses of the general theory of crime? What is the most important aspect for studying crime according to the theory and do you agree or disagree with the focus on that one factor? Why is this theory so important in the field of criminology?
4. If you were a proponent of “learning” theories of crime and criminal behavior, what policy recommendations would you make to try and reduce crime?
Chapters 11 & 12
1. What are the major assumptions of “labeling theory?” How does this perspective impact how society views “criminals” and how does this impact our criminal justice system?
2. How has Marxist theory been incorporated to explain crime? In your opinion, is this perspective useful in trying to understand crime and the criminal justice system today in the US (why or why not)?
3. How has the restorative justice perspective incorporated the offender, victim, and community? Do you think this type of approach is a good “alternative” to traditional criminal justice system practices/policies?
4. Describe the three “waves” of feminism. Which of these do you think is most important (and why) when it comes to our understanding of crime?
5. How do “traditional” theories of crime perceive female offenders? Why is it important to be critical of how these theories were applied to studying female offenders?
6. From a feminist criminology perspective, what policy changes would you suggest to help the criminal justice system better understand and deal with female crime?
Chapter 13
1. What major characteristics distinguishes developmental theories from traditional theoretical frameworks? Which of these perspectives do you agree with more (and why)?
2. What is a “criminal career” and why is it important to understand from a developmental/life-course perspective? What aspects make up a “criminal career?” Come up with a hypothetical example that illustrates each “phase” of a criminal career.
3. Explain how the General Theory of Crime contrasts with developmental perspectives when it comes to our understanding of crime and criminal behavior. Does this criticism impact your view of developmental theories as a whole?
4. Find a research journal article that tests/uses Sampson and Laub’s theory. Briefly describe the article and the major findings. Please include: author names, article title, and journal name here (so I can look up the article if needed).
5. If you were in charge of reducing crime in the Coachella Valley, what policies would you enact from a developmental/life-course perspective to achieve this goal?
Chapter 14
1. How does white-collar crime differ from traditional street crimes? Historically (and today as well), why has white-collar crime received less attention than street crimes? Which do you believe are more harmful to society (and why)?
2. Provide 2 recent examples of crimes against the environment in the US. Why is it important to study these events?
3. How did Prohibition influence organized crime groups? How does the legalization of marijuana that is going on across various states potentially impact organized crime today?
4. Prior to reading this chapter, what did the term “cybercrime” mean to you? How did your perspective on this change this week?
5. Find an article that discusses white-collar crime or cybercrime. List the author(s), title, and source. What is the article about and what is interesting to you about it?
Chapters 15 & 16
1. What are some of the motivations associated with hate crimes? How would an understanding of these motivations impact potential policy decisions to reduce these acts in society?
2. How did 9/11 impact our understanding of terrorism in the United States? In your opinion, how did the response by the US impact our risk of being the target of terrorist activities?
3. Ch. 16 looked at issues surrounding alcohol and drugs and their links to crime. Look up and explain how MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Driving) and the 1984 National Minimum Drinking Age Act impacted drunk driving incidents over time (i.e., try to find drunk driving statistics and other information before and after the law was implemented).
4. What is the “War on Drugs” and how has it impacted our criminal justice system? What changes are currently being made in this area and do you agree or disagree with these changes?