Community Health Analysis
August 21, 2021
Community Health Analysis
Dr. Markisha Woodson
Las Vegas is recognizes as being the best for providing healthcare for its residents. (City of Las Vegas, n.d.). Las Vegas has developed a physician assistant program, which aims to elevate health standards by producing more healthcare providers. The Las Vegas community has established different partnerships, that are focus on expanding mental health services for its residents. The Las Vegas community has linked with some communities to ensure the youths are involved in that focus on maintaining a stable mental lifestyle. Nevada is known for having mental health issues among the youth, hence focusing on encouraging communities to promote youth mental health programs that educate and convert them into being ambassadors of mental health assistance in the community (City of Las Vegas, n.d.). Also, the telemedicine health clinics provided by the state benefits Las Vegas more compared to other communities.
The city of Las Vegas is famous for the luxurious life practiced by the residents and tourists. Gambling is the leading cause of tourist attractions in the community, with luxurious casinos leading to gambling events (City of Las Vegas, n.d.). The city attracts thousands of tourists every year but narrowing down to the amount of income generated from tourism, the Las Vegas community attracts millions of dollars from tourism annually. The tourist attractions are mostly gambling and live musical shows. Hotels are built to accommodate the large number of individuals who come for leisure. This fact creates businesses and more job opportunities for the residents hence lifting their standards of living. Nevada has supported investment in the Las Vegas community due to the amount revenue it created for the state. This approach has enabled Las Vegas to provide the residents with a low cost of living. The residents of Las Vegas pay fewer taxes compared to other communities throughout the United States. The high cost of living is diverted to property owners and tourists subjected to higher sales taxes.
Moreover, the Las Vegas community takes the safety and security seriously for its residents and the tourists. As a result of the mass shooting in 2018, k-9 units and police have been deployed all over the city to make sure that the tourists and residents do not live-in fear of terror attacks. After the mass shooting in the year 2018, the sheriff and chief executive officer at Caesars Entertainment came up with training with the primary goal of maximizing the security of the residents, hotels, and casinos (City of Las Vegas, n.d.). Hotel owners and employees are under the notion that safety comes first before the cost of accommodating tourists. Every year, before hotels decide on preparing the best accommodation, a security budget is paramount. The streets are installed with security cameras, and public entrances have weapon detectors. Employees in casinos and hotels, accommodating residents are trained to react to mass casualty situations law enforcement. Apart from having traffic patrols, the city has sheriff and police patrols responsible for residential security stability, with the persistence of the security bodies and commitment of the community in maintaining the most secure environments in the community.
Las Vegas, Demographics
The city Las Vegas is in the Southern part of the state of Nevada in Clark County. The city is land, making up to 135.81 square miles of land, while the rest is water that only covers 0.05 square miles. In 2014, the city’s population was 597.353, which amounted to 24.86% growth. The state of Nevada had an average population growth of 38.20%. The average national population growth was 11.6% which indicates that the average population growth of Nevada was higher than that of the United States according to the reports, the population growth of Las Vegas was higher than the communities in Nevada and other communities in most of the states. The same period also recorded an increase in the median household compared to that of the year 2000. The median household is $50,903 between 2010 and 2014. It marked a 15.51% increase. Reaching the median household income average of Las Vegas and Nevada and the nation, the community depicts a robust growth in the average of other communities. Nevada had an average of 17.10%, while the national average is 27.36%. The median house value in the city from 2010 to 2014 was $161,600. Since the year 2000, the housing market has grown in Las Vegas has by 17.70%.
Las Vegas dominates the population density of the southern part of Nevada. The city’s population density is much higher than that of the state of Nevada. The average density of the United States is 24.94 people per square mile, and the population density of the community is 4,396.62 people per square mile. The city of Las Vegas holds all ethnic groups of people in the community, the five largest ethnic groups include; Hispanic, Blacks, Asians, Whites (Hispanic), and White (Non-Hispanic). At least 89.2% of the residents in Nevada are United States citizens. In terms of percentage representation, the whites are of two groups Non-Hispanic, making 42.3%, Hispanic 16.5%, others 14.5%, Blacks 10.6%, and finally the Asian 7.2%. The average percentage of the ethnic groups is led by the United States citizens with 89.2%, in the Clark County, Nevada, there are Asian Non-Hispanic 9.6%, other (Non-Hispanic) 11.3%, White (Hispanic) 15% and White (Non-Hispanic) 42%.
In Las Vegas, the median age was 34 years old according to 2000 to 2010 census. According to the census, there were 103.4 males for every 100 females. The percentage age distribution was under 18 25.9%, 18-24 8.8%, from 25-44 32.0%, 45-64 21.7% and 65 years and above 11.6%. High school graduates from the age of 25 and above make up 83.8%, while graduates in the same age bracket make up 43.5%. Households with Social Security Income make 40%, while those with public assistance income add up to 40% from the 2000-2010 census. The age bracket of 16 years and above shows a high percentage of unemployed people, most youth. Like the national poverty level, the community Las Vegas in Clark County has 5.6% persons below 100% of the poverty level, then an 11.5% representing persons below 200% poverty level. Female representation between the ages of 16-44 is 15%. It is supported by the high population of females present in Las Vegas.
The city of Las Vegas, Nevada is in South Nevada within Clark County. The city has 135.81 square miles of land area and only 0.05 square miles of water area. From 2010-2014 the city of Las Vegas population was 597,353 and grew 24.86%. The state of Nevada average population growth was 38.20% which is higher than the national average population growth of 11.6%. The median household income is $50,903 in 2010-2014 was a 15.51% increase from 2000. When compared to the entire state of Nevada which is 17.10% and the national average rate of 27.36%. The median house value in Las Vegas in 2010-2014 was $161,600. The housing market in Las Vegas has grown since 2000 by 17,70% (US Census Breau , 2021).
The population density of Las Vegas is 4,396.62 people per square mile. The population density in Las Vegas, Nevada is much higher than the state average density of 24.98 people per square mile. Within the city of Las Vegas, Nevada the five largest ethnic groups are white (Non-Hispanic) 42.3%, White (Hispanic) 16.5% , Other (Hispanic) 14.5% Black (Non-Hispanic) 10.6% and Asian (Non-Hispanic) 7.2%. At least 89.2% of the residents of Las Vegas, Nevada are United States citizens. Within Clark County, Nevada there are 42% white (Non-Hispanic), 15% white (Hispanic), and other (Non-Hispanic) 11.3% and Asian Non-Hispanic 9.6%. These are the five largest ethnic groups within Clark County, Nevada. Overall, between 2017 and 2018 the population of Clark County grew from 2.2 M to 2.23 M. The population was over 645,000 people. The median age was 38.1 and the median household income was $53,575. During this time, the population of Las Vegas, Nevada grew from 641,708 to 644,664. In contrast the median household income declined from $56,699 to $53,575 (US Census Breau , 2021).
In May 2021, a group of high-level community leaders from the Clark County, Nevada formed Change Clark County. The Clark County ,Nevada needs increased human services to prevent tobacco usage and obesity. Community leaders should come together to make collaborative efforts to focus attention and resources to eliminate disparities of health status between people of color and non-minorities. This collaborative effort should include high level community leaders from Partners for a Healthy Nevada, Community Partners for Better Health, Nevada Tobacco Prevention coalition Clark County Diabetes group and Southern Nevada Food Council, Children’s Advocacy Alliance and other high level community leaders. The collaborative efforts from the groups leaders will work to successfully improve the county health in occurrence to Healthy People 2030 goals (Partners for a Healthy Nevada , 2021).
Within the Clark County Nevada there is an issue of obesity and tobacco co use. Within the community there are at least 60% of the adults overweight or obese. At least 22% of Clark County adults smoke cigarettes 15.4% of high school students are current smokers. The rate of tobacco uses, and obesity is high among the Clark County’s population. The initiative primary focus is to make healthy living easier by promoting environmental change to prevent obesity and tobacco use. This group of leaders will build on the previous success of collaborative efforts t. o determine the approach needed to change the current health environment (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , 2021 ).
Previous community success within Clark County to decrease the prevalence of obesity in where the implementation the annual training for childcare providers to decrease childhood obesity and focus on nutrition and physical activity. The creation on Nevada Moves Day was to encourage the students to walk or ride bike to school and encourage schools to participate in local Safe Routes to School program. There are more than 21,000 Clark County School District students and parents, local mayors, school board members and other community members that participated in this inventive. The city of North Las Vegas adopted a physical activity and nutrition policy for afterschool programs to require a minimum of 30 minutes of physical activity per day. This is to include the limiting of screen time on computers and establish nutrition standards in North Las Vegas (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , 2021 ).
Previous community success to decrease tobacco use in Clark County there was a focus on the public education campaign to inform the residents of Clark County of the dangers of exposure to secondhand smoke and other tobacco-related polices. This was conducted by using television, radio, and print elements to promote anti-tobacco usage. The result of this type of campaign there where increased calls to the tobacco cessation through targeted outreach to at risk population and development of cessation referral (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , 2021 ).
By August 2021, the Steering Committee established the following goals for Change Clark County:
Increase the available resources for community needs;
Monitor change through centralized data collection and analysis;
Establish and engage the community taskforce, for issues impacting Clark County;
Implement funding to address priorities strategically and collaboratively; and
Inform and define the legislative agenda;
Change Clark County purpose is bringing together organizations to provide better care, improve client outcomes, while maximizing resources, to understand the community needs to better align resources with the county priorities. Through the initiative Change Clark County will provide organizations across Clark County the opportunity to participate and collectively evaluate outcome measures related to the country priorities. There will be a dashboard established that will coincided with the Southern Nevada Health department. To organize Change Clark County assessment and planning process the Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnership would need to be adopted. The leadership team would also include members from the following organizations;
Office of the Governor, Nevada
American Lung Association of Nevada
Nevada State Legislature
Nevada State Medical Association
Nevada Office of the Attorney General
Southern Nevada Health District
(National Association of County and City Health Officials , 2021)
Recommended Position Within Organization
Children’s Advocacy Alliance
5258 S. Eastern Ave #151 Las Vegas, NV
Community Partners for Better Health
902 West Owens Ave Suite A Las Vegas, NV
Southern Nevada Health District
280 S. Decatur Blvd Las Vegas, NV 89107
Southern Nevada Food Council
8050 Paradise Rd Las Vegas, NV 89123
Vision and Values Statements
The Change Clark County Subcommittee will consist of people with access to data, analyze data, design a data management system, and are interested in data. The Subcommittee shall be focusing on the different problems affecting society. The birth rate was 19,534 in 2019 in Clark County, Las Vegas, Nevada. Nevada’s live birth average was 40,7% Hispanic, 29.2% White, 18,1% Black, 0.05% American Indian/Alaskan natives, and 11,1% Asian/Pacific Islander during 2017-2019. The rate of birth per race in Clark County was Hispanic 64.2, White 28.0, Black 82.3, American Indian/Alaskan native 56.5, Asian/Pacific islander 54.7 per 1,000 females aged 15 to 44. Overall, birth rates were 59.4 in 1,000 years between the ages of 15 and 44 years. Women aged 20-29 have the greatest birth rate of 44.5 per 1,000 women, according to Sigman-Grant and Kim (2015).
Clark County’s primary cause of death between 2013 and 2017 was heart disease, cancer, chronic lower respiratory illness, unintended injury, a stroke, Alzheimer’s, influenza and pneumonia, suicide, and diabetes. Alzheimer’s illness, diabetes, and suicide have increased. For Clark County, the age-adjusted mortality rate due to cardiac disease was 102.8 per 100,000 inhabitants. For Clark County, the death related to age was 157.0% in 100,000 people owing to chronic lower respiratory diseases. Clark County’s age-adjusted mortality rate for chronic low respiratory illness was 46.7% in 100,000 inhabitants. The age relates the death rate for Clark County was 42,6 per 100,000 inhabitants due to unintentional injuries. In Clark County, the age-adjusted mortality rate for stroke was 35,8 per 100,000 inhabitants. Alzheimer’s disease death was 25.2% in 100,000 inhabitants in Clark County (Sigman-Grant & Kim, 2015). In Clark County, the age-adjusted mortality rate for influenza and pneumonia was 16.1 per 100,000 inhabitants. Clark County’s age-adjusted suicide death rate was 19.0 per 100,000 inhabitants. In Clark County, the age-adjusted mortality rate for diabetes was 19.3 per 100,000 inhabitants.
In 2017, Clark County’s violent crime was 37.16% of the total 13,334 instances. Compared to 2016, the violent crime rate decreased by 19.73%. The most prevalent offense was an aggravated 54.8 percent assault. In 2017, 233 murder cases were reported, up 20.10 percent from 2016. The cases of the exacerbated attack were 7,301. The cases of Robbery decreased by 26.24% for 4,264 reported instances. Cases of rape recorded increased by 8.17%, with 1,536 cases reported. In the Interactive Jeopardy Factor Observation System, the prevalence of binge drinking in adults was 14.2%, close to 16.3%, in 2015. Adult males are 20.2 percent twice as often as adult females are binge drinkers at 8.4%. In addition, 8.1% of Nevada adults currently suffer from asthma in the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (Sigman-Grant & Kim, 2015). In contrast, 13.6% of persons in Nevada reported asthma.
In the state of Nevada, a 6.3% heart attack prevalence was found. In 2015, in Nevada’s 9.7% prevalence of persons with diabetes in those with more wealth, heart attacks and diabetes prevalence was lower. This is true for those with $50,000 or more income. According to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 18.7% of adults in Nevada saw their health as outstanding in 2015. On the other hand, 4.2% of adults saw their health as poor. In the last 30 days, at least 24,7% of the served Nevada adults did not engage in any physical activity other than work. The prevalence of tobacco consumption in adults in Nevada has been greater for men than for women. This is particularly true for those living in a longer-income group. Nevada adults who are currently smoking are the same as 17.5% of the national prevalence. Last but not least, 37.9 % of Nevada adults are overweight, and 26.7% are obese, according to the Behavioral Risk Factor Monitoring System (Sigman-Grant & Kim, 2015). The data supplied suggested that 39.6 % of Nevada-adult females had a healthier weight than 28.0 percent of adult males.
The social determinants of community health are education quality, appropriate and safe housing, possibilities for employment, access to public transportation, a healthy and clean environment, and, lastly, health resources. These variables affect people in the community. The quality of education in underprivileged communities is deficient due to a lower revenue base. The schools in these locales are of inferior quality compared with those in more high-income areas. In 2009, Clark County’s high school graduation rate was 68% for all students in the county. In 2009, African Americans, Native Americans, and Hispanic youngsters were the lowest graduation rate. Asian and White youngsters have the greatest graduation rates (Ranatunga et al., 2014). Children who fight with the school are more likely to drop out than other classmates. This affects their general health and living conditions as adults.
A healthy individual reflects his or her house, and an insecure house may put him or her at risk for illness. Nevada is more likely to live in a house built before 1978 for low-income Las Vegas residents. People living in poorer houses are also at higher risk of diabetes, particularly in the urban African Americas. Indoor contaminants have been related to lung cancer due to the possibility of radon and asbestos. The prevalence of headaches amongst people living on lower incomes is likewise greater. The elderly in Las Vegas are more likely to die from excessive cold or warm interior temperatures because of worse conditions in their homes. Hispanic renters live in a house with housing problems more often (Ranatunga et al., 2014). Families living in homes with lower incomes are more likely than higher-income families to live in a home without complete plumbing or cooking facilities.
Substance abuse is another problem that has affected Las Vegas. How the population is suffering from the aspect of people abusing drugs indicates how there are associated diseases such as liver cirrhosis. Obesity has serious ramifications for the health and economics of our society. It is associated with many chronic conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes, and certain malignancies (Ranatunga et al., 2014). The cost of treating obesity among adults is projected to be $147 billion. In addition, many Us towns are characterized by unhealthy nutrition and bodily options (Ranatunga et al., 2014). The committee methods to public health that provide healthy diets available to all Americans, approachable and inexpensive.
Obesity enhances the country’s ability to state public health in all plans and build prosperous and sustained actions in the sustenance of consumption healthy and physical lifestyle. Hence, the Department offers aid to Federations, groups, and national partners to enact legislation, systems, and environmental strategies, such as implementing and assessing guidance, technical support, training, monitoring, and conducting research and translations and distribution (Moore et al., 2018). The objective is to improve diet, enhance physical activity and reduce obesity in many environments, such as childcare facilities, businesses, medicine, healthcare facilities, families, and teachers.
Physical activity for 44.5% of persons completed a regular aerobic exercise of low intensity at least 300 minutes a week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity a week. However, 24.4% of people in Nevada reported they had not been involved in any regular exercise in the previous month. CDC report states that the surveillance system of psychological risk factors: frequency, demographic information, overweight and obesity, U.S. obesity patterns, patterns by state, 2010. Government patterns in fruit and vegetable intake among U.S. adults, 2000-2009. Obesity was 11% . Fruit intake: 72% ate or drank 100% cranberry juice or less twice daily in the seven days before the trial. Vegetable intake: 90.2% ate less than three times daily vegetables within seven days of inquiry, according to Moore et al. (2018). Sugar-sweetened drink: 22.1% beverage of fruits and veggies, soda, or pop bottles at least once every day, seven days before polling.
Childcare Nutritional and Vigorous Exercise Standards Nevada State Health Division works with CCDA, Nevada Registry, Cooperation Extensions, and the Family Care Division, Free Childcare Service Bureau, to create requirements for diet and exercise through caregiver accreditation. Since 1 July 2011, Proposed Bill No 27 “requires personnel of certain childcare facilities to acquire skills on the long life welfare, health and safety of children and to provide for other topics related to the well-being of children each year.” This policy affects 573 childcare facilities (Moore et al., 2018). In Nevada, the State Health Division funded community mini-subsidies to develop academic and social gardening, educate children about the origins of food, increase fruit and vegetable intake, and encourage physical exercise. To date, 16 micro-grants have been granted throughout the country.
The Four MAPP Assessments
The important factors for the city of Las Vegas is to promote a healthy living culture. The requirement for a healthy living encompasses a wide range of conditions such as a stable security, healthy and safe environment, and health care provision. The importance of health to the community is to develop a culture of physical, mental, spiritual, and social wellbeing. The city of Las Vegas has areas for improvement that ought to change, which entails maintaining the youth and young adult’s mental health, reducing tobacco usage and obesity rates. The statistics pinpoint that at least 22% of adults and 15.4% of high school students smoke tobacco (CDC, 2021). The statistic for obesity denotes that at least 60% of adults are obese. The challenges should be reduced by introducing a healthy living lifestyle that can protect the population’s health. Thus elicits the development of a safe environment that would spur people to live a healthy and everyday life with amenities that support the whole process.
The quality of life in Las Vegas is adequate but there is room for improvement. The city has advantages that protect their residents such as development of a robust physician assistant program that will increase the viability of medical decisions made to increase the health standards. The city has a sound social support system with the development of partnership networks with other communities to the mental health problems amongst the youths. The city is faced with an unstable lifestyle that will put the future generation into health problems. The presence of a lavish lifestyle entails gambling and live musical shows that have attracted tourists across America and generated good revenue for the community. The health disadvantage of it entails increased tobacco intake, obesity, and mental unfitness (Wallerstein, Duran& Minkler, 2017). The security of the residents is given priority for the tourist, and residents and police have been deployed across the city to regulate the criminal activities. The notion of the of the justice system is to give security a priority before accommodation hence eliciting a good quality of life in the city of Las Vegas.
The city of Las Vegas has various assets that spur a healthy living amongst the population. The community assets for the Las Vegas community entail Addiction rehab centers such as Narcotics Anonymous, gambling addiction centers such as Problem Gamblers. The Nevada State Medical Association, Nevada Health Centre, and social welfare groups like the Nevada Division of Welfare and Supportive Services. The administrative assets such as the Las Vegas City Council have the mandate to develop pragmatic health policies. The community assets are meant to provide a safe environment where the population can experience healthy living. The amenities ought to counter the community health problems within the territory. The amenities should give the essential requirements, which are hospitals to monitor the health of the population. Local colleges and universities can enlighten the people about the health issues and monitor data within the community. The need for an effective law enforcement center to ensure safety. The current local and state government administration is vital to develop sound policies that align with the health requirements. The Las Vegas community assessment can aid in the development of a healthy living practice in a case where effective partnership and networking has been established to monitor and allow the access of the amenities to the whole population without any biasness (Wallerstein, Duran& Minkler, 2017).
Creating a sub-committee is essential for the community of Las Vegas due to access to the Nevada state data. The need to access data enables a comprehensive analysis of the data and monitors the community health progress of the community. The data is evidenced in table one in the appendix. The sub-committee member will encompass the Las Vegas City Councils, which will be liable to formulate policies that promote communal health practices. The policies would include the rationing of tobacco usage in Las Vegas. Secondly, the Communal Outreach Medical Center will aid in developing the community health by providing essential education programs that will equip the people with knowledge on a healthy diet to reduce the increase in obesity rates. Thirdly, Las Vegas environmental program is mandated to sustain a healthy surrounding that will spur the health requirement of the people. A healthy environment will be free of diseases hence providing a basis for a healthy community. Fourth is the American Lung Association of Nevada, which will aid in providing rehabilitation to the tobacco users in the community and give definite statistics on the improvement to control the unhealthy habit. Fifth, International Church, which will create the basis for religious practices to gain the respect and attention of the Las Vegas residents.
Religious stability is essential in creating a positive rapport with the people and offering counsel advice that can help persevere during hard circumstances. The sixth organization is the Nevada State Medical Association which will provide data on medical researches involving the community. It is essential to specialize in researches on diseases that affect the Las Vegas people hence securing the long-term health of the residents. Seventh is the Las Vegas Business Community, which is mandated to develop strategies that spur the economic security of the people. Economic security involves investment in health issues. Eighth is the Nevada Health Centre mandated to aid in enlightening the population on health issues prevalent in the area. Ninth is Narcotics Anonymous is mandated to provide the community rehabilitation and enlightenment strategies on drug abuse. Lastly, Clark County Public Response will help maintain security to develop a friendly community with the urge to work together to implement the health strategies.
The sub-committee selected will aid in providing and analyzing data related to the community health progress of the Las Vegas people. The effective implementation of the MAPP will require good leadership, which can be given to the Las Vegas city council to oversee the whole process and device effective strategies. The supportive roles include:
Protecting the environment, community health enlightenment on drug substance abuse.
maintaining security, and
Researching new medical insights will provide the public health essentials to implement good health practices in the region effectively.
Methods of Collecting data
The data collection strategy is essential in accessing the relevant data required to make the MAPP a success in the city of Las Vegas. The two methods that ought to be effective in the community are observation and the utilization of secondary data sources. The utilization of the observation technique will be vital for assessing the daily achievement compared to the previous undertaken health projects. The observation technique ought to be undertaken with a focus on the health security of the Las Vegas people. The community health development implementation ought to be visible to change the perception of health issues. Thus fitting the collection of data while assessing the progress.
The second data collection approach uses secondary data from reputable institutions from Las Vegas Community. The organization chosen for the Sub-committee will have the power to access various vital data on the healthy development of the area (Wilson & Sharma, 2018). The organizations named will gather unique data for assessment to attain community health objectives. Such data include the narcotic control to assess the regulation in Tobacco consumption and Community Health data to analyze obesity rates. The sub-community ought to utilize the two data collection approaches to manage the implementation process of a healthy community. The sub-committee is mandated to read through the data and identify major issues, perceptions, and assets summarized before releasing the vital information to the public.
Review and Summarize data
The Las Vegas community has a robust health system which is evidenced by various factors to include the cost of accessing medical care is cheaper and was achieved within a short duration (Wallerstein, Duran& Minkler, 2017). The government has focused on developing policies to reduce the charges incurred. Access to medical care is cheaper and is affordable for the residents. The health coverage has increased amongst the population hence denoting a sound medical provision system. The weakness evidenced in the Las Vegas community is tobacco usage and obesity rates. The lifestyle adopted by the locals has not been within the required health standard. People should adopt healthy living standards and increase eating healthy to prevent overall obesity rates (Wilson & Sharma, 2018). The factor is a weakness and is evidenced by statistics that portray 60% of adults are obese, meaning the future generation will be exposed to unhealthy living conditions, requiring urgent health enlightenment to change people’s perception (CDC, 2021).
Sharing Results with the Community
The dissemination of information to the Las Vegas community is important to assess the positive and negative signs of the implementation process. The communication process ought to be effective to reach a significant section of the population. The strategies to be utilized entail using mainstream media to give the statistics results of the people and influence the incoming formulation of policies. Secondly, utilization of the internet platforms such as websites and social media gives an option to download as most people can gain their information through the sites (NACCHO, 2021). Thirdly, a series of meetings in public halls can be undertaken to discuss the results with people and brainstorm on the viable strategies that can be undertaken to complete the process.
Summary of the Fours Community Assessment
Community health analysis for the City of Las Vegas, Nevada, is fundamental in identifying and describing the local community’s health issues. Besides, it earmarks the issues determining the existing resources that are pivotal in addressing the health concerns. Henceforth, phase four of the community health assessment encompasses identifying the primary issues that the community faces. Therefore, it is imperative to assess the four-community health assessment, such as the community health status of the city of Las Vegas, Nevada (Nevada, 2021). Various areas of Las Vegas city and the rural locality of the city experience challenges of accessing mental health care significantly; the non-Hispanic inhabitants often report a poor health status, while chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer form the primary course of deaths and mobility. Notably, non-Hispanic Blacks face the most significant death rates resulting from cardiovascular disorder regardless of increased screenings for cholesterol. Further, environmental challenges encompass air pollutions and overcrowding in the house coupled with increased housing costs.
On the other hand, community themes and strength assessment are equally imperative since it provides a deep comprehension of the Las Vegas residents’ perceptions based on what essential within the community’s views on the life’s quality and available resources for improving the community health (Nevada, 2021). Based on the Las Vegas, Nevada, analyses, the community faces challenges in health care services access, an undiversified economy, difficulties with access to education, poor social services, and lack of proper family support. Further, the residents experience problems accessing mental health services, inequality in public services provisions, and unhealthy public policies. However, the city has sufficient public safety, various cultural opportunities, and recreational facilities. Additionally, the quality of health results depicts adequate reliability based on Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Besides, the city has various assets that are fundamental in improving community health, such as but not limited to the schools, Southern Nevada District hospital, private and public sectors, demographic diversification, and celebrities.
In addition, the Local Public Health System Assessment evaluates the city’s competencies, abilities, and the envisaged direction of the community health and care provision services. The survey findings demonstrate that the local Public Health system essentials are fundamental in assessing health status, championing partnerships, ascertaining competent professionals’ availability, and evaluating innovative solutions. Besides, there are limited essential services in the city among the top 25%, while law enforcement and policies that safeguard health and enhance safety appear the greatest (Nevada, 2021)
Conversely, forces of Change Assessment impact and present changes within the Las Vegas, Nevada local health and standards of wellbeing, and the community health system. Henceforth, the community should be attentive to the forces such as the Affordable care act, funding, the healthcare system’s quality, the environmental change such as the climate and water, and the socioeconomic forces like unemployment which determines the community’s incomes that is fundamental in accessing the health care services and education, that provide critical aid to leave a healthy lifestyle that promotes the standard wellbeing.
Brainstorming On the Potential Strategic Issues In Las Vegas, Nevada
Mental health presents a great concern to Las Vegas, with a high mortality rate related to suicide cases. For instance, the suicide rate is higher among non-Hispanic whites than the other racial communities. Besides, binge drinking is high in the city and a higher significant rate among high schoolers (Gavrilova & Donohue, 2018). Further, the drug-initiated mortalities resulting from drug poisoning and drug dependence related and addictions have multiplied within the recent decades (Ghimire et al. 2018). Notably, the city has poor mental health services plans hence posing the community to psychological health problems. These mental health issues originate from various negative forces in the town, such as lack of access to affordable healthcare, poor socioeconomic status, reduced education level among most of the resident’s inaccessibility to the essential services. Consequently, these shortages in the mental health services can result in the health system’s burden if not addressed, as many persons may developmental disorders due to lack of interventions mad care. Therefore, developing outpatient mental health services can be significant in addressing the community needs assessing in the Las Vegas community health
Socioeconomic factors form a critical tenet in determining the health status of a community. The population’s lives pose a significant impact on the health conditions, quality, and outcomes. These socioeconomic influences encompass but are not limited to the community’s income, education levels, and employment. Studies have demonstrated that reduced socioeconomic income levels are related to the poor quality of health (Imran, Cross & Das, 2019). Hence, a community’s financial status is crucial in analyzing the general health of the Las Vegas community. Information obtained from the American community survey depicts that the monetary income of the city’s inhabitants has been declining in recent years. Also, the poverty rates are heightened among African Americans, Native Hawaiian, as Latinos. Besides, data demonstrate that the income disparities have increased among racial minorities, particularly in Hispanic and Black Americans, with low-income areas inhabited by the communities above.
Various studies have shown that poor education achievement can significantly impact the community health status and the quality of health outcomes. According to the American surveys, the education levels of Vegas city are slightly lower than the nationwide average (Singh et al., 2017). Essentially, there is a great variation in college graduation crosswise the Las Vegas city. Conversely, the unemployment rates of Las Vegas city fluctuate at the rate of 4 to 6 percent. However, the city’s unemployment rate is still above the nationwide averages, approximated at two percent.
Community access to improved and standard healthcare services is critical for improving the disparity and the health-associated enhanced outcomes. The accessibility to affordable healthcare services is imperative for social and mental wellbeing. Communities that lack health insurance covers are often challenged by accessing the primary care that is substantial in promoting healthy life. The health insurance cover is essential and provides total aid in promoting accessibility to primary consideration (Sokolowsky et al., 2017). Significantly, lack of health insurance cover is prevalent among the community with low socioeconomic income, such as Latinos and the Back Americans. Fundamentally, public health performs a fundamental role by providing community health care services to the city’s inhabitants. These services involve disease prevention to reduce the burden in the medical facilities, health promotion to enhance the quality of life among the communities, environmental health regulations to prevent environmental pollutants, and provide public health nursing care and services. For example, public health nursing organizes a yearly immunization program tailored for infants and children two years.
Essentially, environmental health is essential for healthy wellbeing in a community. The air quality related to indoor activities is a significant health issue in the Las Vegas public health community resulting from the various public facilities that permit smoking. The passing of environmental regulations such as the Nevada Clean Indoor Air Acts significantly validates children and adults from passive smoking within workplaces and in public.
The prioritization process is a fundamental evaluation exercise in the community health assessment to explore and examine a health issue in a community. For instance, in prioritizing the primary concern in Las Vegas city, the prioritization matrix is fundamental in assessing the health issue that presents and greatly influences community health. For example, in Las Vegas, Nevada, socioeconomic status significantly influences community health. Based on the various studies and analysis of the Las Vegas, Nevada city, the socioeconomic status of the community affects multiple health-related issues (Nevada, 2021). Most of the inhabitants have low income, which adversely affects health care access. Persons with low income have a challenge accessing primary health care services and affordable healthcare insurance cover. Henceforth, there is a significant increase in mortality rate among the community due to lack of access to the mad intervention treatments. Besides, low socioeconomic status is related to low levels of education. The reduced education levels inhibit the community from making a choice that promotes a healthy lifestyle. The persons have less knowledge on the type of diet that promotes good health (Imran, Cross & Das, 2019). The community perceives low-quality life in the city due to the low socioeconomic status and has not been fully exploited to address the challenges. However, the city has assets and employment opportunities for the inhabitants but insufficient to serve the population. Low socioeconomic status is primarily contributed by the racial disparities in the city, which results in underserving of the areas. Hence it must be determined to address the health issues that are contributed by the low economic status.Community Health Assessment: Goals and Objectives
Community health assessment is an imperative exercise that seeks to establish factors affecting the city’s inhabitants’ health and develop necessary interventions to counter the identified challenges. Hence, the primary goal of the community health analysis is to enhance the awareness within the community based on the association of the components that determine health, public health, and the prosperity of Las Vegas, Nevada. According to the health committee meeting’s findings, there was no consensus comprehension of what entails public health in Las Vegas, Nevada. Community health is impacted by various factors encompassing the socioeconomic and physical environments, coupled with the individual conducts. Therefore, there is need to establish an operative intervention for the sake of positively impacting community health. However, developing and enhancing the socioeconomic influencers forms the primary concern that impacts the community health and the general wellbeing. Since the socioeconomic status instrumentally determines the access of the community, more sustainable and workable systems should be developed to assist the community in accessing quality healthcare services. Henceforth, these goals will significantly help establish inequitable enhancement accessibility of healthcare provision to enable the inhabitants of Las Vegas, Nevada, get affordable and quality health care services.
Strategies and Interventions for the Community Health Issues
Mental health is a critical aspect of the quality of wellbeing for the Las Vegas, Nevada residents. Health outcomes can be enhanced through effective interventions that seek to reduce mental health problems. Public health plays a fundamental role in reducing the prevalence of mental problems by screening for depression amongst the city residents (CDC, 2018). This process helps the clinical providers establish a precise management plan before the condition worsens, which may otherwise overwhelm the healthcare service providers. Besides, the primary care provision, patient education, and administration of antidepressant medications are equally fundamental in managing mental health. Notably, mental health presents significant effects on individual thinking, mood, and behaviour (Feth, 2017)
Consequently, mental issues, such as depression, hasten to develop various types of diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, and stroke. These chronic health conditions predispose the community to the threats of developing and increasing the incidence of mental health problems (CDC, 2018). Hence, mental challenges have various triggers such as adverse experience during early development stages, chronic health conditions, alcohol usage, drug abuse, and low socioeconomic status.
Studies from credible sources have shown that persons with low socioeconomic status are likely to experience mental problems due to lack of access to primary care, insurance cover, and the prerequisites for quality health outcomes. Therefore, interventions that focus on socioeconomic status would significantly be pivotal in management and attaining improved mental health (Ghimire et al., 2018). As such, the city’s executive can develop a workable strategy that promotes education in the community, creating employment that facilitates convenient access to healthcare services. Hence, the accessibility to primary care enhances reduction in chronic health conditions, which reduces mental health challenges. Furthermore, education is an instrumental tool in promoting good health since it equips citizens with the knowledge to choose a healthy lifestyle. This encourages quality life with reduced levels of chronic health disorders that may propagate mental challenges, enabling the community to educate others on the importance of having a sound mind and the economic development of a society.
On the other hand, enhancement of health equity can only be achieved if the residents of Las Vegas, Nevada, are given equal opportunities for having a healthy life standard. Therefore, this can only be achieved by ensuring that the community has insurance health cover that enables them to access the primary care providers. However, healthy wellbeing is often determined by the socioeconomic status of the community residents, racial disparities, ethnicity, and sexual orientation (Bosworth, 2018). As such, health disparities originate from inequalities in the distribution of social enhancers of standard health. These social enhancers or health determinants encompass education that enables the citizens to lead healthy lifestyles, proper housing that promotes protection and security, and a clean environment that provides fresh air, reducing disease resulting from air pollution.
Conversely, the accessibility to reliable transportation promotes access to medical care services, while employment provides the financial freedom that enables the residents to obtain the health insurance cover that allows them to access primary care. Additionally, the public health systems and policies ensure that citizens have access to affordable care services that promote healthy wellbeing. These social factors significantly impact the individuals’ capabilities of maintaining a healthy lifestyle while working in a conducive environment.
Henceforth, interventions, such as those that reduce health disparities based on the ethnic groups and population, low socioeconomic status, can promote access to affordable healthcare, which ensures that the community has quality health standards. Moreover, intervention to promote community health care access reduces the mortality rates that would have resulted from the chronic health conditions caused by lack of proper medical care. Reiterating CDC (2021), access to affordable healthcare is critical in enhancing health care services in a community. Hence, the efforts by the Las Vegas, Nevada executive is necessary in realizing the success of quality health among the residents.
Barriers to the Selection of Strategies
Policies that sanction funding have a significant influence on the operations of public health facilities and the means of meeting the population’s healthcare needs. Therefore, most barriers to improving the health status of Las Vegas city often revolve around the city’s funding policies. The unavailability of adequate funds allocated to the health sector, educational activities, and the associated sectors are the primary strategic concerns that need to be addressed to improve Las Vegas, Nevada’s community health (Rangel Gómez et al. 2019). According to the residents’ and the stakeholders’ assessment, there are various shortfalls and threats when conducting the community Theme and Strength analyses, in which most of the shortcomings can be leveraged by enabling policy changes (Pharr, Kachen & Cross, 2019). However, establishing a large-scale influence the population, and the residents’ health depend on continuous collaborative efforts amongst the community healthcare stakeholders. Thus, there is a need to coordinate the policies to effectively aid the Las Vegas residents to address their healthcare concerns. Therefore, Las Vegas, Nevada has developed strategies and opportunities that provide education to the community and ensure that the policy makers prioritize quality healthcare provision.
Strategy Selection and Adoption
Developing and selecting a strategy for adoption is significant for achieving the community’s healthcare goals and objectives. Therefore, healthcare stakeholders must identify the leading themes that emerge the significant issues impacting the community health based on the community health assessment on the priority sectors that affect the health of the residents. Therefore, it is essential to focus on improving health outcomes (Herold et al. 2020). Essentially, strategizing on promoting access to equitable, affordable, and quality health care services to the Las Vegas, Nevada community is the main measurable objective that facilitates improved health outcomes. Hence, assigning each of the objectives plans to a specific entity essentially is necessary for adopting an actionable strategy, which enhances accountability throughout the implementation process.
Conversely, based on the impacts of the community health assessment, the leading objectives envisage coordinating the strategies and efforts that may be significant in realizing the Las Vegas, Nevada community health (Herold et al. 2020). Thus, laying the foundation that addresses the most problematic public health concerns that face Las Vegas city. Consequently, solving the health problems in the community face various challenges, hence the need for an operative plan and the will of the community health stakeholders to promote health progress.
Significantly, process objective forms a critical component of the community health assessment. These objectives greatly help public health develop interventions that strive to solve the strategic issues affecting the Las Vegas population health, such as accessing– primary health care services. This low socioeconomic status hinders access to care services and mental health problems; all these problems in Las Vegas adversely affects the quality of life. Notably, the process objectives target identifying the health-associated needs, health enhancers, and strengths of Las Vegas, Nevada (Herold et al. 2020). Similarly, identifying the leading health priorities in the city and the feasible strategies that require implementation in a collaborative design to achieve the public health process objectives. Hence, the Las Vegas Nevada assessment provides a comprehensive analysis of the city, develops, implements, and examines the action plan. However, this requires collaborative efforts from the healthcare stakeholders to enhance accessibility to quality healthcare services amongst the residents of Las Vegas, Nevada.
A good health care system is one of the main pillars contributing to the country’s growth in the economy. Notably, this trickles down to the different states and towns. A good health care system requires good medicare resources and service delivery. When this ministry is well funded, the healthcare department can provide medical care by employing qualified medical practitioners, ensuring medicine availability in hospitals and health care facilities, and providing health insurance covers to patients (Drury & Louis, 2002). Las Vegas, Nevada, is also at the forefront of ensuring that residents are cared for in sustainable health care services. However, various factors hinder the success of proper medication and health service delivery. Some of these factors include unemployment, delayed healthcare services, poor management, and insufficient funding.
The different challenges have led to establishing a team of experts to evaluate the service delivery by the ministry of health in Las Vegas. The team comprises five members and one team coordinator, Luis Miguel, Rebecca Michaelson, Leah Remini, Stefan Salvatore, and Ferragamo Chris. The team coordinator was Davis Putin. The team was tasked with evaluating the various situations hindering the provision of medicine and services to patients, leading to the town being ranked poorly in healthcare service delivery.
The evaluation team conducted a program by the name (SLL), which denotes save Las Lives. The program was established back in 2019 by two doctors and ten nurses. The program was to carry out health outreaches to the people in Las Vegas during a scheduled calendar. These health practitioners did this mission to sensitize the residents on regular checkups and seek early medical advice. The group then grew into an organization that was registered according to the requirements of the town charter (National Research Council (U.S.) & ebrary 2011). The organization was then subdivided into small team groups, which comprised five members and one general coordinator, making the total number of members in every team six.
The team was formed to evaluate how medicine and health services were availed to patients with obesity and those who are overweight. The team was to carry out the entire evaluation for about four months and develop a report on the findings and results obtained from the assessment. According to past surveys and studies, many patients who suffered obesity and other related diseases were experiencing delayed healthcare services (National Research Council (U.S.) & ebrary 2011). The number of these patients continued to increase over the past three years, causing an alarm to the situation (Drury & Louis, 2002). The team was also to evaluate the effects of unemployment on accessing medical care.
Patients diagnosed with obesity usually fail to access health care services and develop other related diseases such as cardiovascular issues and mental issues. Drury & Louis, 2002 argue that most of these patients typically have delayed medical care due to lack of knowledge and information, the stigma of being overweight, and fear of being told to reduce weight. However, some also fail to seek medical attention because they lack the resources to pay for those services. As a result, most end up suffering and eventually die. Notably, this contributes to the high number of death cases from this diagnosis and related issues.
According to different studies carried out by scholars and scientists, unemployment is a significant factor contributing to most people’s poor state of mind. Unemployment can contribute to the diagnosis of mental health issues in patients. According to different reports, mental health in many people results from unemployment, which results in the lack of funds and resources (Warr, Jackson & Banks, 1988). Consequently, according to Warr et al., 1988, lack of employment results in the absence of resources needed to pay for the medicine and other health care services such as surgery and medical insurances
The evaluation team was to ensure it has attended to over five hundred patients with obesity. During their evaluation, the team was to exhaustively address the reasons behind the continued rise in the number of patients diagnosed with obesity. During this process, the team also ensured they have researched how fast these patients accessed medical treatment. The results of the study were recorded using two rows. In one row, the data on the attendance rate for the employed patients with obesity was recorded. The other row is comprised of data for the unemployed patients. The team also evaluated issues that arise from the failure of having early assistance to the patients with obesity. The research was also to touch on the mental health state of these patients regarding the situation. The team was also to give advice to these patients and educate them on the same issue.
Several stakeholders endorsed the program being under the ministry of health. These stakeholders include persons with association to the governmental agencies, while others are non-governmental organizations. The other stakeholders are those with private corporations aiming to foster faster health care services and health coverage for patients in Las Vegas. One of the non-governmental stakeholders suppporting this program is the Las Vegas Savers association which has endorsed the program with the necessary resources needed for the entire evaluation months, such as financial resources and transportation resources (National Research Council (U.S.) & ebrary 2011). The stakeholders will also analyze the results obtained and develop a system that will help fasten the evaluation process. The stakeholders will also help advertise and sensitize the residents through state media such as radios and television shows.
The evaluation process will carry out a process of evaluation in which the team will deal with patients personally. Notably, this will help obtain firsthand information concerning the challenges faced by these patients (Drury & Louis, 2002). The patients will also be able to provide full details on the issues the team will be evaluating. Notably, this evaluation process will also help give a platform to the patients to give extra information and recommendations on the same issue.
The evaluation will employ a non-experimental evaluation design. However, the evaluation process will use some characteristics found in the quasi-experimental design of evaluation. During the process, the team will evaluate different patients who will be selected randomly. Notably, this will aim to assess the results from interventions and those that have not received intervention in time. With this type of design, the team will carry out an average estimation of how many patients suffer from delayed healthcare services delivery and how unemployment affects the mental health state of these patients. The team will be dealing with various questions: how does unemployment influence the timeframe for patients with obesity regarding seeking early medical care?. The other question is how stigma influences delayed healthcare service delivery to patients who are diagnosed with obesity. Finally, the last question will be the resultant complications from the delayed medical care to these patients.
The data will be collected using both quantitative and survey methods. Moreover, during the evaluation, the specific information will be present testing as patients are evaluated. Once the data is obtained, it will then be analyzed using tables, charts, and graphs. A team of data analysts under the health department will analyze the data and provide a conclusive report on the analysis.
Once the data is analyzed and represented, the data will be stored in the secure database program. Notably, only the relevant authorities will be allowed access to this data which will help prevent data loss and misuse. Additionally, this data will be used for future references and studies. Those members who wish to remove their data from the database program will be advised accordingly to ensure mutual consensus is achieved.
The stored results will then be subjected to internal evaluation. In this evaluation, the stakeholders and the teams will discuss the results to achieve a sustainable health care program. The challenges of unemployment that result in mental issues will be addressed, and alternatives are drawn (Warr et al., 1988). The stakeholders will then develop the necessary changes needed for evaluation.
Engagement of stakeholders
Gathering evidence and justification
Table 1. Evaluation work plan
The evaluation processes on different programs help sensitize the public about various issues being faced by people. Evaluation in the healthcare department will help prevent delayed healthcare service delivery and insufficient medication. With such processes, the healthcare system will be improved, and more caution is taken to ensure lives are saved, especially at early stages, to avoid resultant issues or even death. Evaluation plays a significant role in ensuring services are available through addressing the challenges in the different departments.
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Community Health Analysis