COUNSELLING AS PER THE PERSONALITY 4 Lauryl Salami Pennsylvania State University HDFS

Lauryl Salami
Pennsylvania State University
HDFS 414
Dr. Elizabeth Essel
Personality is one factor that defines an individual approach to different problems. People solve their social, political, and economic problems by first understanding themselves. According to much psychological research, individuals’ ability to present morals in society is established by study how their personality affects their approach to life. Solving mental problems such as anxiety is advocated through the personality approach that patients undergo through the different therapy processes. Therapy is the best approach in advocating the personality of an individual. We can also discuss the personality of an individual through the different characteristics that people present in society. Socialization is a common factor that outlines the role of personality in society.
Individual distinctive behaviour makes them who they are and affects all their connections and way of life. Personality is something you could explain, but do we understand what empirical personality studies entail? First, the research focuses on establishing the key factors that define what personality is all about. Second, the research focuses on the different theories of personality to establish how people behave and respond to different actions in life. The personality of learning allows psychologists to forecast how people can deal with special contexts and the kinds of things they like and value. It will be beneficial to know further about the most important developmental psychology to comprehend how people evaluate personality psychology. Third, the research would focus on personality trait theory to build the remarks on what personality entails. Stauffer et al. (2013) focus on how individual personality relates to their present traits during socialization.
The feature theories of personality assume that personality consists of broad features or provisions. Several theories were suggested to establish which characteristics are key elements of personality and establish the overall number of personality traits. Psychologist Gordon Allport was among the first to identify individual characteristics. From his standpoint, Allport claimed several types of characteristics: common, major, and cardinal. In a specific culture, many people have common characteristics. The essential features are those which make up the personality of an individual. Cardinal attributes are such that a person is mainly known for these features (Onyekuru & Ibegbunam, 2015). Mother Teresa is an instance of a cardinal trait. She was so famous for her charitable endeavours that her name was used as a symbol for charitable traits.
Allport believed there were up to 4,000 unique characteristics. Psychologist Raymond Cattell suggested 16. Cattell also felt that these characteristics exist in a continuum and that everyone has different characteristics. For example, the provision of assistance to those in need has become almost synonymous. A Hans Eysenck psychologist would further restrict the number of qualities, indicating that only three are present: extroversion, extraversion, and psychoticism. Today, the “Big Five” idea is maybe the most prominent and well-recognized personality feature idea, according to Onyekuru and Ibegbunam (2015). The theory suggests that personality consists of five main characteristics of personality.
The notion of the Big Five asserts that each feature exists as a broad continuum. The character will fall on the spectrum of each attribute. For example, you might be quite extrovert, intelligent, and pleasant, but for friendliness and neuroticism somewhere in the middle. The research focuses on how an individual develops a personality. Freud’s idea of psychosexual development is one of the best-known, but one of the most contentious, theories of personality. As per Freud, children advance through several phases of personality development. Libidinal energy (that drives all human activities) focuses on particular erogenous areas at each level (Liu & Baumeister, 2016). The successful completion of a stage allows a person to proceed to the following development phase. Failure at any stage can rise to fixations that can affect the personality of an adult.
Every stage in counselling plays a gives the best approach according to Erikson’s hypothesis. A person will confront a developmental crisis that played an important part in his growth during each client’s development. Each phase leads to the formation of a healthy personality. Erikson was more interested in the effects of social interactions on personality development. He focused particularly on developing what he called ego identity (Liu & Baumeister, 2016). While Freud’s view stated that personality was developed and placed in stone mostly at an early age, Erikson felt that personality continued to grow all life.
Psychologists have devised personality tests, evaluations, and inventories to investigate and quantify personality. The tests are frequently utilized in a range of environments. For example, the prominent MBTI is often used for which was before the screening. Additional evaluations can be done to assist people in learning more about various parts of their personalities. Some tests are used as instruments for detecting and evaluating personality disorders. In many parts of your life, a good comprehend your character can be advantageous. For example, relationships with friends, family, and colleagues can improve if you realize that you function well with each other or that you need to spend time alone. Personal evaluations you take with a grain of salt should be carried out online. Informal tools may entertain and guide your interests and qualities, but only personality tests conducted as formal evaluations or diagnostics by educated and skilled professionals are necessary.
Liu, D., & Baumeister, R. F. (2016). Social networking online and personality of self-worth: A meta-analysis. Journal of Research in Personality, 64, 79–89.
Onyekuru, B. U., & Ibegbunam, J. (2015). Personality Traits and Socio-Demographic Variables as Correlates of Counselling Effectiveness of Counsellors in Enugu State, Nigeria. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(35), 64–70.
Stauffer, S. D., Perdrix, S., Masdonati, J., Massoudi, K., & Rossier, J. (2013). Influence of clients’ personality and individual characteristics on the effectiveness of a career counselling intervention. Australian Journal of Career Development, 22(1), 4–13.
Theoretical Paper 1: Grading Rubric
Grading Criteria
Section 1: Introduction of Theory
Give a brief overview of theory.
Remember that a theory is a general explanation of a set of observations of facts. What are the observations or facts you have noticed? Give a brief description of the associations at the core of your theory.
Section should be relatively brief – a paragraph or two.
8/15; in your paper, you summarized research related to personality, but it’s not clear what your personal theory is. This needs to be well established by saying “My personal theory is…” Then you can use sources to support what your personal theory is.
Section 2: Description of Theory
Give a more detailed description of the theory. Refer to Lesson 1 to ensure that your description includes the basic components of a theory. Your theory should organize and explain information and help to generate new knowledge (for example, through the creation of hypotheses). Specifically, I will be looking for the following things:
Does your theory serve one of the two primary functions of a theory?
Is your theory falsifiable?
Does your theory have a defined theoretical structure (in other words, does it explain a set of observations or facts)?
Does your theory have defined elements (in other words, is it logical)?
Does your theory show critical thinking and use of either deductive or inductive reasoning?
15/25 It’s not entirely clear that you indicated if your theory relies on inductive or deductive reasoning, so be sure to be explicit about this in paper 2.
A clear discussion of whether your theory is falsifiable is needed for paper 2.
A clearer discussion of whether your theory serves 1 of the 2 functions: organize/explain behavior and/or generate new knowledge.
Section 3: Connection to Counseling and/or Research
Explain the connection between your theory and counseling and/or research. If your theory can be used to generate new knowledge (e.g., it creates hypotheses), then it is useful for research. If your theory can help inform therapeutic practices, then it is useful for counseling.
Your theory might have a connection to only one (counseling or research) or to BOTH (counseling and research). Explain the connection(s).
8/15; you summarize different theories, but because you do not have a clear established personal theory that you define early in your paper, it’s not clear you indicated how your personal theory is connected to research and counseling.
Adherence to APA formatting: Is your assignment written in accordance with proper APA-‐style? Text should be 12-‐point Times New Roman font; if references are included they need to be in proper in-‐text citations with a correctly formatted Reference page.
10 points = All APA style formatting is adhered to without error, including in-‐text citations and References, if applicable.
5 points = There are some APA errors throughout the paper and Reference page, but basic formatting guidelines are adhered to. There may be some errors with proper APA-‐style quoting.
0 points = No APA formatting is used and errors are abundant throughout the paper; paper has plagiarized material from other authors.
Writing Quality: Is your assignment well-‐written? Is the writing style clear and easy to read?
10 points = Your writing was very explicit (e.g.., the reader did not have to search for the meaning in your written work). No misspelled words, grammatical, or punctuation errors.
7 points = Your writing was very explicit (e.g.., the reader did not have to search for the meaning in your written work), but there were a few grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors in the writing.
3 points = Your writing was ambiguous and sometimes difficult to follow (e.g., the reader found it difficult to understand what you were saying). There were grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors throughout the paper.
0 points = Your writing lacked coherent linguistic style (e.g., topics jumped around, did not make sense, and reader had to guess at meaning). There were abundant grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors that made it difficult to understand the content.
51/75; while you present some good ideas, Lauryl, the main point of this paper is to state and establish your own theory and this does not appear to be done clearly. You summarized some good research about different theories and how they approach personality, but you need to present your own theory. Then, you can use other theories to support your own theory development.