D1.1. Compare the Terms Active Independent Variable and Attribute Independent Variable. What

D1.1.  Compare the Terms Active Independent Variable and Attribute Independent Variable. What are the Similarities and Differences?
     An active independent variable is a variable that is presented to participants at specific period during a study.  An attribute independent variable is a variable that cannot be manipulated by the researcher (Morgan et al., 2020).  They are similar because both are “predictors, antecedents, or presumed caused or influences under investigation in a study” (Morgan et al., 2020, p. 2).  They are different because an attribute is a preexisting variable and an active variable is presented during the research process (Morgan et al., 2020).
D1.2.  What Kind of Independent Variable (Active or Attribute) is Necessary to Infer Cause? Can one Always Infer Cause from this Type of Independent Variable? If so, why? If not, When can one Infer Cause and When Might Causal Inferences be More Questionable?
     An active independent variable is necessary to infer cause.  However, one cannot always infer cause from an active independent variable.  It primarily depends on research approach, the sample size, and the effect it has on the outcome (Morgan et al., 2020). According to Aspers and  Corte (2019), researchers must devise an approach that will provide for cause and effect if they intend on discovering associations between the variable.
D1.3.  What is the Difference Between the Independent Variable and the Dependent Variable?
     An independent variable is a variable that is manipulated or changes during research and has an effect on the dependent variables.  A dependent variable is the variable that is measured during the research effort (Morgan et al., 2020). 
D1.4.  Compare and Contrast Associational, Difference, and Descriptive Types of Research Questions.
     Each of the respective types of research questions are used to present research questions concerning the relationship between variables.  From contrast viewpoint, associational, difference, and descriptive research questions each focus on a different aspect.  Associational questions associate or related two or more variables, difference questions compare two or more groups, and descriptive questions seek to describe the statistics captured during the research (Morgan et al., 2020).
D1.5.  Write a Research Question and a Corresponding Hypothesis Regarding Variables of Interest That are not in HSB Dataset. Is it an Associational, Difference, or Descriptive Question?
     What is the average age of those students who’ve taken calculus in high school?  This is an associational question that seeks to review the correlation between two variables.  A corresponding hypothesis could be, the average age of students who take calculus in high school is 18 years old.
D1.6. Using One or More of the Following HSB Variables; Religion, Mosaic Pattern Test, and Visualization Score
D1.6. (a.)  Write an Associational Question.
     Will students who score above a 53 on the mosaic pattern test also score above a 15 on the visualization assessment?  Both of these scores are around the ninety fifth percentile.
D1.6. (b.)  Write a Difference Question.
     Will students who are catholic present a higher visualization score then student who are not catholic?
D1.6. (c.)  Write a Descriptive Question.
What is the percentage of students will score over a 50 on the mosaic pattern test?