Development and Theories
There are too many processes to mention if one were to just sit down and review the political machine that is public administration. The list can range from large-scale project management, nationwide accounting, military strategy, Whitehouse laundry service, and even what the current leadership eats for lunch when meetings are running late. Take this into consideration when an actual statesman is found somewhere in the rough, trying to make a difference. Comprehending the massive number of gears that are consistently turning is difficult and it’s no different from the concept of urban planning. Urban planning has been called many things over the years from regional planning, city planning, rural planning, and event recently some have taken the title of political planner. Oxford has no real definition of Urban Planning, however, shows a small association with urban stating only this “The process that is focused on the development, design as well as the use of the assigned properties of the designated public administration entity” (Dictionary, 2008).
Urban planning wasn’t a titled action before the early 1900s, of course, the action was performed by academics, political leaders, and anyone else who may assist in the development of the city infrastructure, however, there wasn’t much research done on the topic. The major start to this type of research first came from Britain somewhere between 1900 and 1920. Classes were starting at university in Britain around then, which means there had to be someone proficient enough in the subject before the class being taught. Then America chimed in riding on the coattails of Britain, building their version of urban planning, and starting up educational endeavors as well. Of course, this also means someone had to have had some history with the concept otherwise the education would have been poorly constructed.
What are two urban planning theories used in the US?
There are so many different theories that date back even before America was formed, before the United States, and even before the growth spurt of the colonies. Choosing one specific theory none the less two is impossible, we will be generally focusing on a few different aspects to show the integration of multiple theories into what is used now. One example is The Modernist Model from years ago which according to Encyclopedia Britannica “The modernist model, involving wholesale demolition and reconstruction under the direction of planning officials” (Britannica, 2021). This model is almost the exact opposite of what many of the cities are trying to do today, which is sometimes referred to as preservation planning, however, it has different over-embellished titles depending upon the intended outcome, from wetlands to historical buildings, to any landmark.
There are so many ways to interpret these two different concepts, however, the point that will probably make the most sense is “There can be no good without evil” (Britannica, 2021, Plato). Destruction isn’t evil, however, too many destructions at a profit are headed to that general vicinity. Gray areas aside this is a general concept that will be used to explain universal balance. If this nature was never known, then the nation would have never realized preservation is a needed concept. This happens again and again over time and conflicting ideologies. The foreign aspect to this comparison is for the modernist model, as it had its roots in the 1920’s version called the “Contemporary City” (Britannica, 2021, Le Corbusier, 1922).
Le Corbusier was a Swiss-French national that had ideas that impacted everything from urban planning, to limiting pollutants in municipal zones, which made him well beyond his time with such simple, yet elegant concepts. One other concept that ties in with both the contemporary city, the modernist model, as well as the preservation model Is the 24-hour city. There isn’t one author or suspected benefactor that came up with the concept, at least not one that could be located; however, it’s aligned more with facts.
Take New York City, Las Vegas, Las Angeles, London, Tokyo, Paris for instance, they all have a thriving nightlife that goes well into the next day, which impacts the sustainability of every urban planning model that’s currently in circulation. This concept must be incorporated, or the entire design will fail, as cities with the amount of nightlife the aforementioned cities have, would not only negatively impact the design it would deter from positive growth. The one foreign component to the 24hr city concept can be loosely equated to nations that are simply bursting at the seams like China. China will purposefully evict deprecated areas to bulldoze and rebuild, to try to revitalize the area, which leads to a more 24-hour city concept, at least that’s what’s intended, which we all know what road is paved with good intentions.
There was one other concept that stood out, which didn’t have a contrasting concept, however, pulled from every technologically based concept of that era, which was called the “Broad Acre City” (Britannica, 2021, Frank Lloyd Wright, 1900-1924). This concept was wrapped around vehicles, technology, street accessible businesses, cities designed around those types of concepts all wrapped up in a nice pretty bow. Wright started to see his plan through around 1924, where he believed technology was the key to successful urban planning, and with the current situation, it would seem he wasn’t too far off, with drive-through lines for food, beverages, alcohol, and technologically enhanced entertainment venues all revolving around automobiles. Other concepts could technically tie into this concept if they were as enlighten as wright, however, they didn’t seem to have the insight he did. The concepts ranged from “Towers in the Park” (Britannica, 2021, Le Corbusier 1887–1965), “Regional Planning Movement” (Britannica, 2021, Patrick Geddes, 1864-1932) to the “Sanitary Movement” which was either Penn or Oglethorpe original design, however, it was taken from the British “Sanitary Movement” which was advocated by the infamous Charles Booth around the late 1800s.
How does the impact of influence Affect urban planning ?
Influence is a fickle concept, it can either help you one day or hinder you the next. This is no different outside of social influence, as the industry is impacted by society, so influence holds just the same way in any indicated industry as it does in social encounters. One example of the power of social influence is the most recent stock exchange fiasco where non-experience day traders saved a company from all but going extinct “GameStop is an American brick-and-mortar retailer that specializes in video games, consumer electronics, and gaming merchandise. It was widely deemed a company in declining health—indeed, its mere existence as a physical shop was viewed on Wall Street as being decidedly outdated, and its business model was hurtling towards failure” (International Banker, 2021).
There is an online Reddit group, which we will assume that anyone reading this post understands what Reddit.com is and go from there, however, the group was called Wall Street Bets. This group gathered all its numerous members to prove a point, that there is more power in the average person than a hedge fund, which this point not only saved a company but also solidified the concept that one person does stand a chance to make real change. The point to this is to understand influence, the influence of man in any industry is significant, so to amplify that by indicating the influence of an entire culture, well that’s immeasurable.
To provide yet more examples of influence, the word chariot, yes the first item that pops in your head, of a Roman warrior riding around with the armored chariot, as well as the armored horse, is usually what comes to mind, however, the word is older than civilized Rome, the concept of a chariot predates the Gaulish civilization. The influence from these nations spanned across time and space into modern-day France where a simple cart that some industries use to carry around items like food, or even basic IT equipment is called a “Chariot”. This has happened on numerous occasions across the world from the oddest of cultural ties, however, it goes to show you that the world can be a small place in the eyes of public administration. Now that influence is properly explained and the ties to foreign influence explained in the first section, mostly from Britain concerning the urban planning discussed above, with the random, Franco-Swiss influence, we will move on to the next section concerning societal impacts on urban planning.
How has the change of society impacted urban planning?
The one component that wasn’t mentioned or required was how the societal shifts have impacted the concepts of US urban planning. This is a tough subject to broach as there is more than a fair share of bias when it comes to what should be considered societal norms, however, it is important to understand how these shifts impact the country. There are fads, and crazes springing up all over the place from home rental restorations, tiny homes, to living a mobile lifestyle and it makes a huge difference when considering urban planning. Attempting to take into considering for reported addresses, places people may consider his or her home base, however, do not consider if they are working abroad for an extended amount of time, or traveling the country in a camper van. These things do matter, as the generated income from a single individual, up to a family can cause a shift in projected outcomes in any urban environment thus throwing off the projection for the entire plan by more than a little.
There is no way to account for these fads as they do not always happen at the most opportune time and may end up drawing crowds away from areas under urban planning. There is nothing anyone can do about those who are leaving; however, additional plans can be made to attract tenants to the area to compensate for the exodus of urban citizens.
There isn’t a conclusion to public administration, urban planning, government it will always exist in some form or another. Urban planning and influence are no different, as we are a global society expanding at an exponential rate, learning even faster, pushing the limits to our capabilities well beyond a single regional concept. The small influences of Britain in the US are expected as it was originally owned, colonized, or settled, depending upon the common vernacular you would like to use and the US broke free of that influence, however, retained much of the training as it was all the young settlers knew, then handed it down from generation to generation. The random Franco-Swiss influence was only due to his immense skill and reach, he was widely known for his unorthodox concepts and his approaches to reach them.
The concept of influence may have been the main point of this entire process, however, the point that should be made in the United States was founded by influence, was founded by culturally diverse people, meaning not only the founding fathers, however, those who did the heavy lifting. The country was originally inhabited by natives, so any bloodline other than theirs was influential in settlements, concepts, history as well as general social dynamics. The diverse cultural influences that built the US are almost impossible to document. There are so many different small nuances from items like the hot dog, apple pie, and even the basic concept of the pickle came from ancient Mesopotamia.
Trying to find a single influence for urban policy planning may end up being a moot point if the group is overly diverse, however, finding the influences of the creators of these urban planning theories is more of an acceptable approach. One example is Frank Lloyd Wright was a huge component in pushing for automobiles for every home and believed they were the future for cityscapes. Lastly having tied Britain, Switzerland, and France to the US was the easy part, however, the question again isn’t the cultural influences, the individual influences, as even his or her region found that they stood out amongst the crowd.
There are so many verses that could apply to Urban Planning, concerning money, business, organizational structure, however, this one verse stood out mainly because of the depth “The plans of the diligent lead surely to abundance, but everyone who is hasty comes only to poverty” (Proverbs, 21:5 ESV, Bibles, 2008). There are so many different times where individuals fail because of poor planning, and the same goes for groups planning for large-scale processes like urban planning. In the United States, there was a moment in history around 1824 known as the “Gold Rush” (History.com) which spiked up everywhere around the country, it had another unforeseen circumstance of created what was known as gold rush towns, which sparked business, commerce, prosperity, however, once the mines went dry so did the town, thus destroying any reason to stay by the townsfolk. Now, this pre-dated the official concept of urban planning, however, the death of the villages, towns, or cities if you will, is due to poor planning, so you can imagine if during this current era an urban planning committee didn’t account for something as imperative as revenue streams from different sources, the outcome would be a modern-day ghost town if anything were to happen to that one revenue stream, oddly enough it still happens today, just look into dead mill towns.
Bibles, C. A. E. (2008). The Holy Bible: English Standard Version. HarperCollins UK.
Dictionary, O. E. (2008). Oxford English dictionary. Simpson, Ja & Weiner, Esc.
International Banker (2021). Game Stop: What happened, and What IT Means. InternationalBanker.com, Brokerage, Retrieved on August 23, 2021, From https://internationalbanker.com/brokerage/gamestop-what-happened-and-what-it-means/
Marx, K. (2021). Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite [M/CD]. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Development and Theories