Digital Epidemiology Due Thursday Respond to the following in a minimum of

Digital Epidemiology
Due Thursday 
Respond to the following in a minimum of 160 words and cite 1 reference: 
As digital epidemiology becomes more prevalent, what are some of the ethical considerations of using Big Data in public health surveillance? 
Respond to the following 2 discussions in a minimum of 120 words each: 
Vayena (2018) “Digital epidemiology, also referred to as digital disease detection (DDD), is motivated by the same objectives as traditional epidemiology. However, DDD focuses on electronic data sources that emerged with the advent of information technology” It draws on developments such as the widespread availability of Internet access, the explosive growth in mobile devices, and online sharing platforms, which constantly generate vast amounts of data containing health-related information, even though they are not always collected with public health as an objective. Furthermore, this novel approach builds on the idea that information relevant to public health is now increasingly generated directly by the population through their use of online services, without their necessarily having engaged with the health care system. Vayena “At the crux of the debate on the ethics of big data lies a familiar, but formidably complex, question: how can big data be utilized for the common good whilst respecting individual rights and liberties, such as the right to privacy” (Jannesa)
Effy Vayena (2018). Ethical Challenges of Big Data in Public Health. Retrieved from:
Digital epidemiology has become much more common over the past few years. This is largely due to the COVID19 pandemic. Digital epidemiology can be defined as the utilization of digital data that generated outside of the public health system (He et al., 2020). Examples of digital epidemiology include contact tracing, collecting data from electronic health records, the internet and even social media (He et al., 2020) However, as with anything there can be some ethical concerns surrounding the use of digital epidemiology for health surveillance. These ethical issues include the validity of the information collected from social media and legal aspects of public health information (He at al., 2020). I think we all know that the majority of the information found on social media is biased, misleading, and often times not even accurate. Therefore, there is an ethical concern regarding the utilization of data collected through social media. Second, there is an ethical concern over the legal aspects of public health information. Informed consent is not obtained prior to the utilization of digital epidemiology fo health surveillance. Therefore, another ethical concern exists. I personally feel that digital epidemiology is extremely useful. Especially in circumstances such as the COVID19 pandemic. (Danielle)
He, Z., Zhang, C. J. P., Huang, J., Zhai, J., Zhou, S., Chiu, J. W.-T., Sheng, J., Tsang, W., Akinwunmi, B. O., & Ming, W.-K. (2020). A New Era of Epidemiology: Digital Epidemiology for Investigating the COVID-19 Outbreak in China. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(9), e21685.