Emma Rousselet. War In Yemen
You need to clarify more who the actors are, what are their goals, their incentives, and what is the conflict of interest between these actors.
You can then propose the ways in which these actors could reach an agreement. Try to limit describing your case to a short paragraph, then move on to apply concepts from the lecture to the case at hand.
The land of Balkis the Queen of Sheba, the land of the Himyarite Kingdom…there is no shortage of glorious history in Yemen, one of the oldest civilizations in the region, the richest and most prosperous. Nowadays, however, this heritage is being bombed daily, the country seems to be drowned in the worst page of its history, a terrible page that threatens even its survival. It is one of the many conflicts in the Middle East, and by far the most timidly presented to the world, unlike the Syrian and Iraqi conflicts, we rarely speak of the war in Yemen, yet the country has nothing to envy them, thousands of dead, wounded, displaced1, we also find them in Yemen. Let’s admit right now that this conflict is one of the most complex, it is a civil war overshadowed by a regional war, a war between Yemeni brothers but also between neighbors, a war that has at stake power in Yemen but also hegemony in the Middle East. What I am trying to do through this modest work is to try to shed more light on this war, by trying to answer three questions: First, who are the actors of this war? Secondly, what are their stakes? And finally, what are the prospects for the Yemeni conflict?
First, let’s present modern Yemen. It is the most populous country in the Arabian Peninsula and the only republic in the region, located in a strategic geographical area; the country controls one of the most important detroy in the world, Bab-El-Mandeb, it is surrounded by a powerful kingdom and a sultanate, it is also the country with the most heterogeneous society. To this tribal2 heterogeneity is added another religious one, the country is divided between two Muslim clans, the Sunnis who represent 55% of the population and the Shiites who constitute the remaining 45%. Yemen is also a victim of its powerful neighbor, Saudi Arabia, the rich kingdom has always considered Yemen as its own preserve, the pursuit of this strategic objective has led to frequent interventions in the internal affairs of Yemen, the recent war is their latest3. Ironically, it was his direct and indirect interventionism that gave rise to his current enemy, the Houthis, a rebel group named after their historical founder Hussein Badreddine al-Houthi. The members of this clan decided to counter the political and religious pressure of the neighboring monarchy They were suppose to defend and protect its territory in the north, Saada, from interference by its neighbor, but it quickly established itself as one of the most powerful political and military forces in the country. The geopolitical balance in Yemen was upset after the Arab Spring, the Saudis tried to marginalize the Houthis, who were increasingly accused of being Iran’s proxy. Furious about their marginalization and the chaotic state of the country, the Houthis decided to take their fate into their own hands and invaded the capital. President Hadi fled the country and asked for the intervention of his Saudi allies and the war began. Currently, large parts of northern Yemen and Saada are still under the control of the Houthis. Another element of Saudi concern about its border security is the increased migration flow from Yemen to Saudi Arabia. In 2021, the war in Yemen entered its height year of fighting with no clear victor.
In truth, identifying the victor of the war in Yemen is very difficult, but it is easy to determine the defeated: the Yemeni people. The height years of war have caused the death of a hundred thousand people, mostly civilians. The country’s economy has been destroyed and famine and medieval diseases have ravaged the country, adding to the suffering of the unfortunate Yemenis who have been caught between politicians and neighbors willing to kill millions and destroy an entire country and its thousand-year-old civilization for political and ideological gain. Unfortunately, the prospect of a diplomatic breakthrough in Yemen remains remote, on the contrary, the country is likely to be the scene of a long and even bloodier conflict.
The most likely outcome of this war will be the emergence of another failed state in the region, where militias and terrorist groups will remain key players, and which provides an ideal breeding ground for violence and terrorism.
1Some reports speak of more than 100,000 war casualties and the humanitarian and health crisis that the country has been experiencing since 2015.
2Bonnefoy, Laurent. “6. Contemporary Yemen: a tribal society?”. Dawod, Hosham. The Constant “Tribe”: Arab-Muslim Variations. Paris: Demopolis, 2013. (pp. 141-170) Web.
3Laurent Bonnefoy. Contemporary transnational religious relations between Yemen and Saudi Arabia: an imported Salafism? Political Science. Institut d’études politiques de paris – Sciences Po, 2007.
-Emile Hokayem & David B. Roberts (2016) The War in Yemen, Survival, 58:6
-Gerald Feierstein, YEMEN: THE 60-YEAR WAR, The Middle East Institute, 2019
– SARI ARRAF, THE ARMED CONFLICT IN YEMEN: A COMPLICATED MOSAIC, Geneva Academy, 2017.
– İrem Aşkar KARAKIR, ONGOING CONFLICT IN YEMEN: A PROXY WAR?”, Turkish Journal of TESAM Academy.
– ELEONORA ARDEMAGNI, The Saudi-Yemeni Militarized Borderland,Carnegie Endowment for international peace.
– Gidon Windecker and Peter Sendrowicz, “Cold War in the Gulf,” International Reports,
– Ali Younes, Analysis: The divergent Saudi-UAE strategies in Yemen, Aljazeera
– David Hearst, When the Saudis and Emiratis fall out, Middle east eye, 2019
– Ashi Al kahwati, Peace in yemen, The Swedish institute for international affairs.
– Marcel Serr (2018): Understanding the War in Yemen, Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs.
-لعلاقات الحوثية-الإيرانية: حلف مصلحي بغطاء مذهبي, أمل العالم, مركز الجزيرة للدراسات الإستراتيجية
Emma Rousselet. War In Yemen