Essay Exam I Part I. Four Mini-Essays Topic 1 Paleoindians The Paleoindians

Essay Exam I
Part I. Four Mini-Essays
Topic 1 Paleoindians
The Paleoindians and Bering land bridge
The Clovis culture of Paleoindians
Topic 2 California People
Diverse indigenous in California (Chumash and Wintu)
The Indians’ puberty and initiation rites
Topic 3— New France
The establishment of Quebec and cooperation with Wendats.
Life and missions in New France
Topic 4—New England
The establishment and development of Plymouth and Massachusetts.
The dissenters in New England and Pequots War.
Part II. Reflections
Global American, large domestic mammals
Connecting California, Vizcaino’s letter to King Phillip III
Topic 1 Paleoindians
The Paleoindians and Bering land bridge
The Clovis culture of Paleoindians
About 2.6 million to 11,700 years ago, nearly all the northern regions of Northern Hemisphere were covered by enormous ice sheet, which is known as the Pleistocene. During the final phase of the Pleistocene, Beringia, the land mass between Siberia and Alaska, was exposed and a continuous thousand-mile-wide land bridge, the Bering land bridge, connected Asia to North America(Montoya 1-1b). Human of the late Pleistocene, which is known as Paleoindians.
As the climate change, the grassland of Beringia became a refuge for large animals(Montoya 1-1b). Thus, the land of Beringia provided a reliable source of food for Paleoindians. Moreover, the skilled hunters who had harnessed fire were able to push the human settle far into America. Some of them further ventured along the coastal to the tip of South America.
Furthermore, one group of Paleoindians, which is called Clovis dominated much of North America. The Clovis point, their distinctive fluted-projectile points, could be the evidence to show their achievement in hunting. However, as the population increased, Clovis over hunted large animals. At the same time, the global warming suddenly came. Those factors further caused the megafaunal extinctions which also limited the ways their culture develop as horses and camels died out. Therefore, they and the myriad peoples of the Americas who descended from them would be vulnerable to epidemics that originated in some domesticated animals(Montoya 1-1c). The Paleoindians started to disperse and separated in the land.
Topic 2 California People
Diverse indigenous in California (Chumash and Wintu)
The Indians’ puberty and initiation rites
California is among the most diverse and densely settled regions in the Americas. There are more than one hundred different languages amount the indigenous, and each language group was composed of an even larger number of independent peoples(Montoya 5-1c). The central village and one or more affiliated hamlets composed their basic political unit. Socially, California people managed their environment and practiced intensive plant and animal husbandry. They intermarriage across their neighbor groups and trade their local products for something they don’t have. Furthermore, some Indians trading trails illustrate the major modern routes in California(Gastil Section2-4).
The Chumash located at the central and southern coastal regions of California, which is now in portions of what is now San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Ventura, and Los Angeles counties. The name Chumash means “bead money makers”, which is evidence of Indian trades. The Chumash of the coast and the Channel Islands had tomols, seaworthy canoes about thirty feet long. Moreover, the Chumash had a clear division of labor. Women gathered acorns and shellfish, and men hunted seals and sea lions(Montoya 1-5c). Culturally, The Chumash use rock art to express their religious and spiritual leaders.
Historically, the Wintu lived primarily on the western side of the northern part of the Sacramento Valley, from the Sacramento River to the Coast Range. Now they are in Redding. Unlike many hunter-gatherer groups, they were socially stratified. Both rich and poor people live with each tribelet(Gastil section2-3). Furthermore, each tribelet had a chief who was the wealthiest and most influential person in their community. The chief’s duty includes judging criminals, organizing ceremonies, and dealing with routines in the tribe. Socially, they use the clamshell disk as their “money”. Their health counselor was called Shamans, who was also in charge of predicting the future. They also encourage newlyweds to establish their household, which can be either patrilocal or matrilocal. They also do gamble, which is called bohemtcus (big wood) hand as their entertainment.
The Indians’ puberty and initiation rites are remarkable as well. The Tolowa Indians of northern California celebrate a girl’s biological puberty with rather elaborate ceremonies. This rite of passage ensures a long life after a girl is incorporated into Tolowa society as an adult. On the other hand, the Lusieno is located in Southern California, the Coastal tribe. They gathered girls for their puberty ceremony, and people would sing, dance, and pray during the ceremony. For boys, their ceremonial involved initiation into the Toloache cult. There were several ordeals involved in passing into manhood. One of these progresses includes suffering the red ants’ bite.
Topic 3— New France
The establishment of Quebec and cooperation with Wendats.
Life and missions in New France
In New France, they administered their colonies differently from other Europeans. At first, the French settled far to the north of Florida in what is now eastern Canada. Since the French realized the considerable profit of the beaver fur, which became fashionable in Europe, they started to establish a stable colony to support fur trading. In 1607, after French nobilities failed to monopolize fur business, Samuel de Champlain ventured to a narrow point up the St. Lawrence River and established Quebec, rendering the Algonquin term for narrow passage(Montoya 3-1c).
On the other hand, the French and the Wendat cooperate to create a commercial frontier centered on fur business. Because the production of fur neither needed French labors or the coercion or enslavement of Indians, the French forged trading partnerships with local Innus (Montagnais) and Wendats (Hurons). The French would trade metal, glass, and cloth to Indians for food and animal skins(Montoya 3-1c). The French learned the Wendats language and supported the Wendats in their conflict against their traditional enemies to maintain the trade. Moreover, French traders joined in many local ritual activities, dressed as Indians, and some of them lived with Wendat women.
French settlement gradually expanded up the St. Lawrence River with Trois-Rivieres in 1634 and Montreal in 1642. Socially, The Company of 100 Associates granted dozens of seigneuries, or tracts of land, to nobles, the Jesuits, merchants, and a few commoners(Montoya 3-1e). The seigneuries were required to recruit settlers to live and work on the lots. The families who lived on the lots were known as habitants and paid annual rents to their seigneur(Montoya 3-1e). In addition, the company recruits male indentured servants (engages in French) instead of French families or enslaving Indians. The servants could become habitants when they finished their three-year-long work.  
The leaders of France thought it was their obligation to spread Catholicism to the indigenous. The Jesuits were established in New France, Florida, Arizona, and Lower California. Unfortunately, the arrival of the missionaries aggravated the divide between the settlers and Indians. In the 1630s, half of the thirty-five thousand Wendats died from smallpox after the arrival of the Jesuits(Montoya 3-1d). Thus, the Wendats considered that the Jesuit indicated the supernatural power and associated baptism with death. The missionaries focused on the children because they believed they were easier to convert than adults. Most Indians rejected the missionaries and their beliefs, although a few natives converted. Additionally, for the converted indigenous who broke the Catholic notions would face the imprisoned or whipped.
Topic 4—New England
The establishment and development of Plymouth and Massachusetts.
The dissenters in New England and Pequots War.
Immigrants to New England were large economically comfortable families who had left England out of religious conviction (Montoya 3-4e). As the desire for the freedom of religious expression, they routinely expelled dissenters and did not attempt to evangelize among the Indians. Consequently, The English in New England built a society based on family ties and religious devotion.
A small number of English colonists, which is known as Separatists, established Plymouth Plantation. In 1620, thirty-five Separatists and more than sixty-five others sailed across the Atlantic on the Mayflower(Montoya 3-4a), and the non-Separatists drafted the Mayflower Compact. This document ruled the governor’s election by male colonists, the self-governed meeting, and various laws for the habitant. Even though the settlers struggled because of lacking survival skills initially, the several hundred Puritans and their servants finally built a stable existence based on subsistence agriculture and trade with the Indigenous. Consequently, the colony became a prosperous place because of the set of land policies and well-governed.
On the other hand, the other group of English who are non-separating congregationalist established the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and they believe their society will lead to the spiritual reformation of England. Socially, the Massachusetts General Court was founded for self-governing well, and they restricted church membership to those deemed likely to be destined for salvation which is known as the New England Way. With a clear religious vision and the prospect of autonomy awaiting them, an unprecedented number of English people sailed for Massachusetts from 1630 to 1650. Since the healthy sex ratio and well self-governed, the colony potentially became a booming settlement.
Puritans in Massachusetts Bay strove for homogeneity in all aspects of their society and warned those with divergent religious or political views to conform or face expulsion. In 1636, two Puritan leaders, Thomas Hooker and John Davenport, sought independence from the colony’s leadership and established towns and churches at Hartford and New Haven, which is known as Connecticut. At the same time, pastor Roger Williams established Providence in the colony of Rhode Island. However, in the midst of these emerging divisions in New England society, settlers found common cause in the war against the Indians. They considered the Indians as savages and the opposite of civilized men. The Pequot War happened in 1636–1638. The war’s causes included the English greed for land, the Pequot’s willingness to trade with the Dutch, the desire on both sides to avenge previous attacks by the other, and the English ambition to demonstrate their supremacy over Indians in New England. In 1643, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, New Haven, and Plymouth allied themselves for a common defense against the French, Dutch, and Indians, creating the New England Confederation(Montoya 3-4d).
Part II Reflection
I didn’t read critically about Vizcaino’s letter to King Phillip III of Spain, 1603. The question was asked, “why is Monterey but not San Diego?” The pine tree can be used for ship masts of any size desired. I realized that the age feature should be considered when we analyze a historical event. This letter shows the progress of how the explorers selected and what factors they measured in the settlements, such as ports for their Pacific trading, natural sources, and spreading religion.
During the colony period, the colonies and indigenous conflicts about lands and culture, and religion. I didn’t know that the missionaries considered their duty and obligation to spread Catholic among the natives. Biologically, lots of Indians died because of the epidemic after the arrival of missionaries. As a historian’s vision, we should measure the potential factors as much as possible and further summarize those factors’ reactions.