Department of Child and Adolescent Studies
California State University, Fullerton
ASAM-308-50: Asian American Studies – Asian American Women
Professor: Salada Vann
Asian American faces Issues of Discrimination
A collection of institutional conditions of group disparity and an ideology of racial oppression can be defined as racism. The ideology of racial oppression is described by a number of beliefs asserting that the subjugated race is physiologically or ethnically inferior to the dominant racial group. Racism can be defined as “a collection of restrictions of group disparity and an ideology of racial oppression.” The term “discrimination” refers to both “differential treatment on the basis of race that disparages a racial group” and “treatment on the basis of inadequately justified criteria other than race that disadvantages a racial group.” Specifically, “differential treatment on the basis of race that disadvantages a racial group” is the definition of discrimination (Tao et al., 2022).
The lives of racial minorities can be impacted in a variety of ways by the practice of racial discrimination, including the places in which they live, the economic possibilities available to them, the levels of stress they experience, and the health treatment they receive. In addition, discrimination based on race is currently being investigated as a potential cause of existing health disparities. On the subject of the connection between Asian American ethnicity and health, only a few studies have been conducted. The following research focuses on Asia Americans discrimination.
Asian Americans are considered to be ‘reasonable’ targets for people’s irritation, anger, fear, or aggression; this includes the recent outbreak of xenophobic and anti-Asian violence. Since Asian Americans are viewed as foreigners and outsiders, this perception contributes to their marginalization. People who are discriminated against because of the color of their skin are at a greater risk of becoming ill than those who do not face this risk. In addition to that, it is to blame for the growing disparity in the physical and mental health of Asian Americans (Ta Park et al., 2022).
According to the findings of a comprehensive study that was conducted by Trusted Source, individuals who are subjected to racism are more likely to suffer from poor mental and physical health. The mental and physical toll that racism exacts has been thoroughly documented in the scientific literature. [Citation needed] [Citation needed] When a person is constantly under pressure, their blood pressure can rise, and their immune system can become compromised; as a result, their likelihood of developing health problems that affect them over the long run increases.
Racism is associated with elevated levels of stress, which in turn increases the likelihood of persons of color acquiring hypertension (high blood pressure). In point of fact, research conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Reliable Source indicates that persons of African descent have a higher prevalence of hypertension than those of any other racial or ethnic group. Stress brought on by racism can also cause people to engage in behaviors that are detrimental to their health. According to studies from Reliable Source, there is a correlation between discrimination and higher rates of unhealthy behaviors such as smoking, drinking, drug usage, and bad eating habits.
It is more common for racism to have a negative impact on a person’s mental health than it is on their physical health. The following issues related to mental health were mentioned by people of color who identified as BIPOC who had experienced racism:
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Research on the effects of racism on the mental health of Asian Americans was undertaken in 2011 and discovered strong connections between racial discrimination and symptoms of depression and anxiety. According to the findings of a study that was conducted in 2018 and published in the same year, fear of racism itself is harmful, and it can have a detrimental effect on positive aspects of mental health such as resiliency, hope, and motivation (Ta Park et al., 2022). According to the findings of a study that was published in this publication, post-traumatic stress disorder can be brought on by both physical and verbal abuse.
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of hate crimes committed in the United States against Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) has increased to worrying new heights. Because of the continuing racial imbalance in employment, housing, and a wide range of other social areas, there has been an increase in the amount of attention paid to the possible role that discrimination plays. In contrast to the time before the civil rights movement, when racial prejudice was more overt and pervasive, discrimination in today’s society is harder to measure and more challenging to understand, making it more challenging for social scientists to research (Zong et al., 2022).
Racism directed toward Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPI) has been present in the United States for a very long time; nevertheless, during the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a discernible increase in allegations of discrimination and hate crimes directed toward this community. The anti-Asian prejudice that existed throughout the epidemic has had a lasting impact on the mental health and well-being of Asian Americans, in addition to having an impact on their potential employment opportunities in the future (Tao et al., 2022).
There is a growing body of evidence that shows that being subjected to racial or ethnic discrimination raises the risk of mental health disorders, particularly for Asians, all over the world during the pandemic period. This is especially true for those who live in countries that are affected by the pandemic. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, Asian American college students may suffer mental health consequences as a result of racial or ethnic prejudice. This is something that should be taken into consideration when assessing the overall health and economic burden of the pandemic. As far as we are aware, no national study has investigated the impact that discrimination related to the epidemic has had on young Asian Americans who are still developing into adulthood.
Overview & Health Equity of Racial Discrimination on Asia Americans
In the United States, there has been a rise in racist anti-Asian acts and discourse during the COVID-19 epidemic; some reports put the rise at a rate that is 150 percent higher than before. A series of mass shootings that took place in Atlanta last year at three different spas resulted in the deaths of eight people, six of whom were women of Asian descent. These shootings have sparked conversations about bias against Asian Americans. According to groups such as the American Medical Association, racism and the violence caused by firearms are both considered to be crises in terms of public health. According to a recommendation made by the American Psychiatric Association, the shooting may make the fear and trauma that already exists in communities of Asian Americans even worse. In 2021, as a follow-up to the national reckoning that took place in 2020 over the mistreatment of people of color, the focus will be on how racism and discrimination, along with other social determinants of health, influence health in general. This will be done as a follow-up to the national reckoning that took place in 2020 over the mistreatment of people of color (Ta Park et al., 2022). During the month of April, which is designated as Minority Health Month, attention can be paid to the health and wellbeing of Asian Americans.
The term “Asian American” has been the subject of debate due to the fact that it attempts to generalize a diverse group of people who come from a variety of different places and speak a variety of different languages. It is not a problem with the semantics, but rather with the representation of the information. People who are originally from East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, or Southeast Asia as well as Native Hawaiians are all considered to be “Asian Americans.” In contrast to members of every other racial or ethnic minority group in the United States, more than two-thirds of Asian Americans were born outside of the country and have only been in the country for the past ten years. In terms of the various subgroups that make up Asian Americans, the Chinese make up the largest population at 4.2 percent, followed by the Filipino at 3.6 percent, Indians at 3.3 percent, Vietnamese at 1.9 percent, and Koreans at 1.9 percent (1.8 percent ). The Koreans make up the subgroup with the quickest expansion (1.8 percent ).
Many Asian Americans have a hard time obtaining health insurance coverage because of their ethnicity and the fact that they are more likely to work in jobs that do not offer private health insurance. As a result, they face significant challenges in the process of obtaining coverage. A person’s ability to navigate the healthcare system can be further hindered by a lack of competency in the language that is utilized inside the system. Immigration status can have a considerable impact on health outcomes, particularly when other socioeconomic factors such as educational achievement and household income are also taken into consideration (Tao et al., 2022).
Obtaining a picture that is both accurate and complete of the health state of Asian Americans is extremely challenging, if not impossible. The research on health outcomes and inequities among Asian Americans has only begun to gain pace in the past decade, which is the only time period in which this research has been conducted. The health disparities that exist among different racial and ethnic groups are frequently ignored or downplayed as a result of a lack of statistics. The United States continues to collect an alarmingly low amount of data regarding people’s racial and ethnic backgrounds for the COVID-19 vaccine, as stated in a letter that Nancy Krieger and her colleagues penned. Throughout the course of American history, Asian Americans have consistently exhibited better overall health compared to other groups and the general population of the United States.
To give one concrete illustration, the percentage of Asian Americans who are diagnosed with cancer is significantly lower than that of non-Hispanic Whites. Despite this, cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans. This is due to the fact that Asian Americans have a higher incidence of liver and stomach cancers than any other ethnic group. Asian Americans as a whole have a higher rate of type 2 diabetes (9 percent), compared to non-Hispanic Whites (7.2 percent), but certain subgroups of Asian Americans, such as Filipino men (15.8 percent), have a far higher risk than the overall population. It’s possible that a more thorough understanding of these disparities could lead to the creation of screening or preventative practices that are more efficient (Ta Park et al., 2022).
In order to debunk the so-called “model minority myth,” it will be necessary to implement public health policies that are specifically geared to promote health fairness. Asian Americans have the lowest rate of any ethnic group in terms of seeking treatment for mental health issues. This is in contrast to other ethnic groups. People may not seek care for their mental health difficulties or for cancer treatment because they are constrained by cultural norms and experience emotions of shame or stigma. However, a portion of the unity and impact of Asian American health care providers may help promote culturally competent care if they worked together (Kuo et al., 2022).
About one in every seventy-five doctors in the United States is of Asian or Asian American descent. Despite the fact that they make up a disproportionately large share of the population, a significant priority for this group is to advance their visibility and assume positions of leadership within the healthcare industry. It is imperative that the United States acknowledge the contributions that immigrants bring to society, comprehend the unique needs of various groups and individuals, and provide solutions that are appropriate for those needs (Young et al., 2022). Additionally, it is imperative that the United States eliminate the racial and racial disparities that Asian Americans face.
Kuo, L. E., Chu, D. I., Gao, T., Brahmbhatt, T. S., & Wang, T. S. (2022). Asian American and Pacific Islander experiences and challenges in academic surgery. The American Journal of Surgery, 223(1), 211-213.
Tao, W., Li, J. Y., Lee, Y., & He, M. (2022). Individual and collective coping with racial discrimination: What drives social media activism among Asian Americans during the COVID-19 outbreak. New Media & Society, 14614448221100835.
Ta Park, V. M., Dougan, M. M., Meyer, O. L., Nam, B., Tzuang, M., Park, L. G., … & Tsoh, J. Y. (2022). Discrimination experiences during COVID-19 among a national, multi-lingual, community-based sample of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: COMPASS findings. International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(2), 924.
Young, J. L., Li, G., Golojuch, L., & Kim, H. (2022). Asian Americans’ Emerging Racial Identities and Reactions to Racial Tension in the United States. Emerging Adulthood, 10(2), 342-353.
Zong, X., Cheah, C. S., & Ren, H. (2022). Chinese American Adolescents’ Experiences of COVID‐19‐Related Racial Discrimination and Anxiety: Person‐Centered and Intersectional Approaches. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 32(2), 451-469.