Part A Answer the below questions, Minimum 300 words, APA format, must

Part A
Answer the below questions, Minimum 300 words, APA format, must have in-text citation and references.
resources section

http://www.iacat.org/what-is-cat
http://www.fairtest.org/computerized-testing-more-questions-answers
https://www.pbs.org/newshour/education/ar-buds-computers-needed-new-standardized-tests
14.1   Search online for  more information about computerized testing.I have provided several resources in your resources section that you might consult. However, please find at least one scholarly journal source to support your discussion. There is much research surrounding this practice, as it is relatively new (and growing) technology in the testing field. So you should be able to find a wealth of information in the journal databases. Imagine you had been invited to submit an article to your local newspaper on the pros and cons of computerized testing.  Please write your article and be sure to address the following questions: 
What is computerized testing and what are some of the more common applications for computerized testing? 
Why is computerized testing so popular?
Who is critical of computerized testing, and why?
End the article with your opinions about computerized testing.
Part B
Please provide discussion responses for 1 and 2.
Minimum 150 words for each responses, APA Format, must have in-text citation and references
Response 1
Computerized testing is “[…] the redesign of psychological and educational measuring instruments for delivery by interactive computers. CAT can be used for tests of ability or achievement and for measures of personality and attitudinal variables. Its objective is to select, for each examinee, the set of test questions from a pre-calibrated item bank that simultaneously most effectively and efficiently measures that person on the trait” (Thompson, et al). Essentially, my understanding is that CAT is just a different way of taking an assessment, similar to all the personality tests administered through computers that we took for our individual assessments. Some of the more common applications for computerized testing are; Aspiring Minds, Berke, Codility, Hire Select, TestDome, Thrivemap, and skillsarena. For examples that I know of myself, these would be; eLearning, LinkedIn Learning, assessments Robert Half offers, ThinkHR, and Greenhouse. 
I have found that computerized testing is becoming increasingly popular is because it can operate from multiple administrators, immediate grading, offers quick feedback, value-added growth measures, can be engaging, offers analytics for both instructors and test-takers, it helps learners with disabilities, and it can be a more secure way of testing. As for people that are critical of computerized testing, I mainly found information about educators including executives and teachers. They see computer-based testing as a hurdle for students from low-income families, children with disabilities, and security issues. Richman says, “Students without regular access to computers or high-speed Internet at home will face challenges when it comes to building the skills needed to excel on the test, said Towson University professor Jessica Shiller, who studies urban education. Low-income homes with children are four times less likely to have a broadband Internet connection than their middle- or upper-class counterparts, the Pew Research Center reported in 2015. The gap is wider for children from black and Hispanic households” (Richman, 2018). Additionally, Thomson, et al., say, “Some research questions whether the medium of test presentation affects the comparability of the tasks students are being asked to complete. For example, (1) computer-based testing places more demands on certain skills such as typing, using multiple screens to recall a passage, mouse navigation, and the use of key combinations, (2) some people become more fatigued when reading text on a computer screen than on paper, (3) long passages may be more difficult to read on a computer screen, and (4) the inability to see an entire problem on screen at one time is challenging” (Thompson, et al., 2003). 
As for my own personal opinion of computerized testing, I understand a lot of the benefits and also see the challenges it faces. My main concern is the effect it has on children coming from low-income families creating access issues. We’re seeing it come to fruition in this day and age where we had children going to school online and seeing families that couldn’t afford wifi or computers for their students. This creates more of a divide between the classes and makes it hard for those from low-income families to try and move up. It’s even more upsetting that this is mainly occurring with minorities causing even more of a racial divide. The other implications I see are that it takes away from the learning aspect. There are articles that state that fast grading leads to more learning, but it takes away from the hands-on approach. There isn’t a conversation between students and teachers about answers and closes the areas for new learnings in debating about different answers. As for the benefits, I like that it is accessible in terms of being on many platforms and it opens opportunities to new learnings, jobs, and promotions. I think there are so many pros and cons and it’s extremely difficult to not advocate for computerized testing, but we have to make it more accessible for everyone in order for it to continue to be beneficial. Really, I think computerized testing presents a larger issue for some and I hope it gets fixed in the future. 
References
Bika Contributor, Nikoletta. “15 Of the Best Recruiting Assessment Tools.” Recruiting Resources: How to Recruit and Hire Better, Workable Technology Limited, 19 Nov. 2021, https://resources.workable.com/tutorial/best-recruiting-assessment-tools.
Burns, Mary. “15 Benefits of Computer-Based Testing.” eLearning Design and Development , ELearning Industry., 12 May 2021, https://elearningindustry.com/15-benefits-of-computer-based-testing.
Richman, Talia. “Computer-Based Tests Are Another Challenge for Low-Income Students, Teachers Say.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 30 Apr. 2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/education/computer-based-tests-are-another-challenge-for-low-income-students-teachers-say/2018/04/30/add5d118-43fb-11e8-8569-26fda6b404c7_story.html.
Thompson, Nate, and Cliff Donath. “What Is Cat?” IACAT, International Association for Computerized Adaptive Testing, http://www.iacat.org/what-is-cat.
Thompson, S., Thurlow, M., & Moore, M. (2003). Using computer-based tests with students with disabilities (Policy Directions No. 15). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, National Center on Educational Outcomes, https://nceo.info/Resources/publications/OnlinePubs/Policy15.htm. 
Response 2
Computerized testing is a type of testing where technology associated with computer systems get employed in the provision of ability test items (Fink et al., 2018). The concept of computerized testing has remained very substantial and relevant since its emergence due to the vast contribution it provides. Computerized testing is associated with diversified benefits or advantages that makes very popular. In this case, various online programs get executed and the ultimate desired goals and objectives realized.
Common Application of Computerized TestingThere are different applications of computerized testing such as Identification of trends, dynamic assessment, and realization of quick feedback.
Identification of TrendsComputerized testing is applied to identify various following the existing data that come with multiple administration of test. It is obvious that computerized testing promotes several online tests to get executed (Fink et al., 2018). The associated that comes as a result of the tests can get gathered overtime and be used to identify various trends. This application is significantly important since it helps in acquiring viable insights that can get utilized to make the necessary decisions.
Dynamics AssessmentThe computerized testing, is very essential and is applied on undertaking dynamic assessment. The assessment process is usually critical in evaluating various parameters in students (Magis et al., 2017). By engaging in vast and diversified assessment programs, computerized testing assists greatly in promoting objectivity.
Realization of Quick FeedbackAnother critical application of computerized testing involves realizing quick feedback. The use of this type of testing entails application of online options and digital platforms that promote quick feedback. Besides, much time and other resources are significantly saved (Magis et al., 2017). It is important to mention that computerized testing is very essential as it translates it advanced improvement.
Reason Computerized PopularityComputerized testing is very popular for a number of reasons. The testing enable instructors to save time and other associated resources. In this case, it becomes easy and efficient to utilize the testing technique for efficacy. It remains integral to provide that computerized testing enhance the degree of understanding and quick acquisition of the necessary feedback. It is vital to affirm that that it allows for immediate grading which very critical and productive s (Fink et al., 2018). It is equally critical to understand that computerized testing assist immensely in promoting multiple assessment process which makes it very unique and relevant in different dimensions. Consequently, the method becomes highly efficient. Several benefits and contributions exist that makes the method popular as addressed.
Who is CriticalThe contribution of online instructor is huge making the instructor the most important and critical person. This is because, the online instructor is the one who assess, coordinate, and manages all the computerized testing and other associated assessments to the learners (Magis et al., 2017).
Personal OpinionThe concept of computerized testing remains highly integral in the modern era that is characterized with computer systems. Most of learners or students in the current general embraces this type of testing alongside instructors since it provides flexibility. Moreover, the application of modern technology in every aspect of the assessments makes it efficient for implementation. It remains the key determiner and tool to shape the future of many learners.
References:Fink, A., Born, S., Spoden, C., & Frey, A. (2018). A continuous calibration strategy for computerized adaptive testing. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 60(3), 327-346.Magis, D., Yan, D., & Von Davier, A. A. (2017). Computerized adaptive and multistage testing with R: Using packages catr and mstr. Springer.