PART I In the period between 1789-1800s, a lot of historical events

In the period between 1789-1800s, a lot of historical events happened in the American colonies. The economic problems that America faced affected its people during the 1780s. In addition, the war that America fought to regain independence contributed to the fall of its economy. For instance, the British army applied its power to destroy most ships of the American country. These and many other factors led to the interference of trade. In terms of land, the armies also stole food from local farms, contributing to decreased food production. When the war came to an end, the American economy was severely destroyed. For instance, exports from America to Britain had been prohibited.
Further, trade had been banned between Britain and other colonies. The banning of trade seriously affected the commerce trade. Since the economy had been highly damaged, numerous cheap British manufactured imports made their way during the post-war economic slump. Lastly, the vast debt borrowed by the states to use in the war worsened the financial crisis by increasing inflation. Life in America during this period was called “hard time.” In this article, I will explore the changes in the economic status from 1789 to the 1800s. Finally, in 1791, the First National Bank opened. Supporters of a national bank like Alexander Hamilton believed the bank would help keep the country’s economy stable (Montoya 8-1a).
After the war, the old-world system was finally defeated, and it was now time for a new economic status to be developed. This saw Americans integrating the technologies of the industrial revolution into the new commercial economy. For example, steam power was a technology that was invented to move steamboats. This fueled the expansion of the American industry sector that led to new methods of transportation getting developed (Montoya,9-2b).
The goods made in these factories could be shipped farther away thanks to transportation improvements. Railroads provided construction jobs for workers and made it easier to ship materials, goods, and people over land. Steamboats and canals made shipping on water faster (Montoya 9-2d). In the 1830s, the Ohio & Erie Canal connected the East Coast with the Mississippi River and Gulf to Mexico. The canal created one long trade route. Average Americans throughout the 1800s no longer had to produce all their clothes and everyday goods. More and more items could be bought pre-made and sold across the country.
The American Industrial revolution spread across the states. For example, a lot of farmers started to grow crops with the focus of making a profit rather than just for self-sufficiency. In the North, a lot of factories began to emerge. The middle class also began to emerge. As such, more men and women began to get employed in the cash economy. As such, most were freed from the chain of servitude. Furthermore, Men, women, and children filled different roles in the American economy. In farm families, women and children worked alongside men in the fields (Montoya 9-1b).
In the 1800s, during the industrial revolution, working-class women and children took jobs in factories to help pay the bills (Montoya 9-1b). There were called surplus labor. Alongside these jobs, women of all backgrounds sewed clothes, did laundry, prepared food, and raised children. These critical tasks are not recognized in the formal economy of production and consumption yet are very valuable. 1800s textile factories like the Lowell System showed the different types of jobs men, women, and children filled. It utilized the division of labor, which means the production process in which different workers specialize in different parts of a larger task. Men performed heavy labor and sometimes had the opportunity to become managers. Women and children ran large weaving looms and earned less money for their work.
American commerce had halted during the 18th century, but American farmers increasingly exported more products to Europe thanks to the revolution. During this period, the French Revolutionary wars had destroyed the continent between 1793 to 1815 (Montoya 8-2d). That aside, American export witnessed an increase in value by 1807. Americans considered their position in the global economy differently. Thus, the concept of Composite farming existed. It means the farming systems that grow crops for household use and market exchange (Montoya 9-2d). However, farmers preferred policies that enabled them to export products across borders to make a profit quickly. In this sense, manufacturers resented the notion of open competition with European products. They argued that the United States is required to favor its industries over foreign industries. Thus, merchants looked for new markets to exploit; they went on to strike partnerships across ethnic lines. Cotton growers who relied on the global markets proceeded to invest deeply in expanding their markets.
The America System relied on a political system that motivated investors and businessmen. The state and federal governments planned and sold public land. In addition, it improved transportation and approved protective laws that made America generate and sell cheaper goods than imports. The State bank was established to support land booms and dramatically expanded the supply of circulating money. (Montoya 9-2d). The banks that released the Bank Note improved the traditional transactions. It is a paper certificate issued by banks that circulated as currency with the promise to repay the holder the face value on demand (Montoya 9-2d). Nationally, the congressmen championed a future that integrated agriculture with manufacturing. This was a move to ensure that the country became more independent (Montoya 9-2e). However, the relationships among markets for credit, labor, and goods implied that citizens were dependent on global economic forces that they could not understand fully. Simultaneously, The Second Bank of the United States compounded American credit woes and caused the further boom-bust cycle. However, the government try to use Bankruptcy to protect the weak economy, which is a process that distributes assets among creditors and cancels the remaining debt status of a person deemed unable to pay their debts.
Notably, the market revolution led to the expansion and growth of cities from 1789 to the 1800s. It further reshaped the lives of workers in the urban centers. For example, by 1820, only New York City had more than 100 000 inhabitants (Montoya, 9-3a). However, by 1850, close to six American cities fulfilled that threshold that had not been realized two decades ago.
The period between 1789 to 1800s saw the introduction of the cash economy. This replaced the old systems of trade. Thus, income became an important definition of economic worth. Efficiency and productivity paled before income measure (Montoya, 9-3e). The introduction of cash economy resulted in new impersonal economic ties and established new methods of production. For young workers, it was a joy because they could now earn wages instead of receiving training as apprenticeships. Most importantly, a new system of economic organization emerged known as the business corporation. This saw states granting freedom of incorporation to safeguard the liabilities and fortunes of entrepreneurs who have invested in early industrial development.
In conclusion, the market revolution was a blessing to the American economic sector, especially after the war when the economy was severely destroyed. Improved transportation, urbanization and industrialization helped regain the economy that was dying.
I selected the first source is “Juan Machado Wrightington Discusses the Changeover from Spanish to Mexican Rule, 1822, by Juan Machado Wrightington. In this section, Juan Machado describes the change from the Spanish ruling era to Mexican ruling Era. In 1822, representatives from the new government of Mexico finally arrived in California to oversee a transition of power. As the voice of “Long live the Mexican Empire!” reverberated, the Mexican flag raised. Then Machado went on to say how the change of rules changed the way people dress, and they were forced to cut off their braids which a lot of people did not agree with, but it had to be done. This relates to the Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776 because, just like the constitution, people had to do things that were against what they learned, and it was never seen before like this. On the other hand, they cut off their braids with sadness and, it relates Vizcaino’s letter to King Phillip; he said the people here are “meek, gentle and quiet.”
Secondly, I selected Mariano Vallejo Comments on the Arrival of a North American Wagon Train, 1841, by Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo. He was concerned about Mexican’s future through the situation in San Francisco, and he thought that all the problems were caused by lacking military. He considered that San Francisco has the potential to be one of the top rank ports in world trading, but “lack of population results in its lack of defense, and from this, its insecurity.” He also noticed the hidden danger from their neighbor when he met a group of “undocumented” Americans from Missouri. He states that “I cannot dare to assure you that California will be saved” if they got involved in a war. President James Knox Polk’s belief that Mexico could not defend the far northern provinces of New Mexico and Alto California in a battle with Mexico coincided with the Democratic Party’s manifest mandate to expand the American frontier. The Whig Party in the United States, on the other hand, strongly opposed the expansion of American territory and the war against Mexico.
Another primary source I selected is the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed by the United States and Mexico on February 2, 1848, ending the Mexican War (1846-48) and extending the boundaries of the United States by over 525,000 square miles. In addition to establishing the Rio Grande as the border between the two countries, the territory acquired by the U.S. included what would become the states of Texas, California, Nevada, Utah, most of New Mexico and Arizona, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. In exchange, Mexico received fifteen million dollars in compensation for the territory, and the U.S. agreed to assume claims from private citizens of these areas against the Mexican government.