Post-Foundation ENGL 203 Spring 2016-In-Class Summary Post-Foundation ENGL 203-Mid-Term Exam: Sample Question

Post-Foundation ENGL 203 Spring 2016-In-Class Summary
Post-Foundation ENGL 203-Mid-Term Exam: Sample Question Paper 1
ENGL 203 Mid-Term Exam
Time: 90 minutes
Sample Exam
Question Paper
ENGL 203 Mid-Term Exam
Time: 90 minutes
Sample Exam
Question Paper
Instructions
Read the article provided on the next page. After reading the article, complete the following task:
Write a short response paper using two points from the article. The minimum required length for the paper is 350 words.
You may use either a black or a blue pen.
The total marks of this assessment is 25.
Instructions
Read the article provided on the next page. After reading the article, complete the following task:
Write a short response paper using two points from the article. The minimum required length for the paper is 350 words.
You may use either a black or a blue pen.
The total marks of this assessment is 25.
Human Stem Cell Cloning: Holy Grail or Techno Fantasy?
By David King
May 17, 2013
There is definitely something special about the idea of “therapeutic cloning.” Most of those messages come from people who have family members suffering from some of the diseases that are told will be cured, and it is hard to have to tell people they have no hope.
Scientists have sold the idea of cloned human stem cells to so many patient support groups, when there is so little scientific substance to their promises. There will be great medical benefits, and the risks that there will be cloned babies are small, but in truth it is the other way around.
Many people know why human cloning is wrong, and that is why governments around the world, including all developed nations except the USA have banned it. However, there are plenty of desperate people and egoistic tycoons wanting to be cloned, and plenty of unscrupulous IVF doctors happy to relieve them of their cash.
However, the hype and false promises around therapeutic cloning is wrong. This is not about embryonic stem cell research, which, despite the hype may deliver something given time, although the alternatives of adult stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells look set to deliver results much quicker.
The cloning element is there purely for the purposes of creating tissues genetically identical to the patient that will not be rejected, and that is a good idea. The trouble is it brings a whole raft of biological problems with it that create major risks to the patient as well as creating an impossibly expensive process.
With cloning, you are forcing nature to do something that it does not want to, so the new risks are to be expected. Cloning creates abnormalities in the genetic read-out, which is the reason that cloned animals are so often sick. Those errors will be there in any stem cells and tissues produced by cloning. Those problems are another reason why cloning babies would be hugely unethical, but they do not necessarily make it impossible.
Finally, even if these problems could somehow be solved, the use of genetically matched tissues in mainstream medicine is simply not feasible and, unlike electronic gadgets, medical costs go up, not down.
In addition to the extremely expensive process of cloning, for each patient, stem cells need to be cultured and reliably turn them into the tissue that is wanted with 100% efficiency, so no single left over stem cell will cause tumors. That has to be done with a standard of accuracy that will satisfy government regulators and medical liability lawyers when something goes wrong. Forget it. There are other much better solutions to the tissue rejection problem that will cost a fraction of the price.
Therapeutic cloning was dead and buried years ago, but it just seems to keep on going, and so do people’s hopes. There is definitely something wrong, something that brings out religious terminology like “the Holy Grail of medicine” around therapeutic cloning. That’s because therapeutic cloning is a fantasy, one that belongs to the modern religion, the religion of technocracy. That is the only way that can be explained how scientists who ought to know better seem to get drunk on their power over nature and keep pursuing this absurd dream.
People often say that scientists pursuing therapeutic cloning are “just trying to make money,” but the truth is worse. Driven by their technocratic ideology, they betray their own credo of sticking to the facts, and that’s bad enough. However, to keep raising people’s hopes in this way is really unforgivable.
Human Stem Cell Cloning: Holy Grail or Techno Fantasy?
By David King
May 17, 2013
There is definitely something special about the idea of “therapeutic cloning.” Most of those messages come from people who have family members suffering from some of the diseases that are told will be cured, and it is hard to have to tell people they have no hope.
Scientists have sold the idea of cloned human stem cells to so many patient support groups, when there is so little scientific substance to their promises. There will be great medical benefits, and the risks that there will be cloned babies are small, but in truth it is the other way around.
Many people know why human cloning is wrong, and that is why governments around the world, including all developed nations except the USA have banned it. However, there are plenty of desperate people and egoistic tycoons wanting to be cloned, and plenty of unscrupulous IVF doctors happy to relieve them of their cash.
However, the hype and false promises around therapeutic cloning is wrong. This is not about embryonic stem cell research, which, despite the hype may deliver something given time, although the alternatives of adult stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells look set to deliver results much quicker.
The cloning element is there purely for the purposes of creating tissues genetically identical to the patient that will not be rejected, and that is a good idea. The trouble is it brings a whole raft of biological problems with it that create major risks to the patient as well as creating an impossibly expensive process.
With cloning, you are forcing nature to do something that it does not want to, so the new risks are to be expected. Cloning creates abnormalities in the genetic read-out, which is the reason that cloned animals are so often sick. Those errors will be there in any stem cells and tissues produced by cloning. Those problems are another reason why cloning babies would be hugely unethical, but they do not necessarily make it impossible.
Finally, even if these problems could somehow be solved, the use of genetically matched tissues in mainstream medicine is simply not feasible and, unlike electronic gadgets, medical costs go up, not down.
In addition to the extremely expensive process of cloning, for each patient, stem cells need to be cultured and reliably turn them into the tissue that is wanted with 100% efficiency, so no single left over stem cell will cause tumors. That has to be done with a standard of accuracy that will satisfy government regulators and medical liability lawyers when something goes wrong. Forget it. There are other much better solutions to the tissue rejection problem that will cost a fraction of the price.
Therapeutic cloning was dead and buried years ago, but it just seems to keep on going, and so do people’s hopes. There is definitely something wrong, something that brings out religious terminology like “the Holy Grail of medicine” around therapeutic cloning. That’s because therapeutic cloning is a fantasy, one that belongs to the modern religion, the religion of technocracy. That is the only way that can be explained how scientists who ought to know better seem to get drunk on their power over nature and keep pursuing this absurd dream.
People often say that scientists pursuing therapeutic cloning are “just trying to make money,” but the truth is worse. Driven by their technocratic ideology, they betray their own credo of sticking to the facts, and that’s bad enough. However, to keep raising people’s hopes in this way is really unforgivable.