Touchstone 1: Narrative Essay Advance (90-100) Proficient (80-89) Acceptable (70-79) Needs Improvement

Touchstone 1: Narrative Essay
Advance (90-100)
Proficient (80-89)
Acceptable (70-79)
Needs Improvement (50-69)
Non-Performance (0-49)
Narrative Focus
Present a focused, meaningful narrative.
The composition is consistently focused, and details are relevant and specific.
The composition is focused and details are relevant and specific. However, a few details and descriptions detract slightly from the focus.
The composition is mostly focused and the majority of details are relevant and specific. However, there are several details and descriptions that detract from the focus.
The composition does not have a consistent focus.
The composition exhibits no evidence of a focus.
Narrative Flow
Tell the story using a logical, smooth sequence of events.
The sequence of events and details is logical and easy to follow throughout the composition.
The sequence of events and details is logical and easy to follow throughout the composition, with a few minor exceptions.
The sequence of events and details is easy to follow throughout most of the composition; however, some areas are poorly sequenced or confusing.
The events and details are primarily poorly sequenced and difficult to follow.
The sequence of events and details is illogical. Readers cannot follow the progression of the composition.
Narrative Structure
Develop a clear beginning, middle, and end.
The composition has a clear and well-developed beginning, middle, and end. The opening paragraph(s) thoroughly introduce the setting, characters, and situation. The middle paragraphs thoroughly describe the progression of events. The closing paragraph(s) provide a thorough resolution to the narrative.
The composition has a clear and sufficiently developed beginning, middle, and end. The opening paragraph(s) adequately introduce the setting, characters, and situation. The middle paragraphs adequately describe the progression of events. The closing paragraph(s) provide an adequate resolution to the narrative.
The composition has a clear beginning, middle, and end; however, one of the three sections is minimally developed.
The composition lacks a clear beginning, middle, or end; or, two of the three sections are minimally developed.
The composition lacks a clear beginning, middle, and end; or, all three sections are minimally developed.
Narrative Language and Techniques
Use narrative language and techniques competently.
Uses narrative language and techniques (e.g., concrete and sensory details, figurative language, vivid description, dialogue, pacing, and plot development) effectively throughout the composition.
Uses narrative language and techniques (e.g., concrete and sensory details, figurative language, vivid description, dialogue, pacing, and plot development) effectively in the majority of the composition.
Uses narrative language and techniques (e.g., concrete and sensory details, figurative language, vivid description, dialogue, pacing, and plot development) effectively in some parts of the composition.
Uses narrative language and techniques (e.g., concrete and sensory details, figurative language, vivid description, dialogue, pacing, and plot development) rarely in the composition.
Does not use narrative language and techniques (e.g., concrete and sensory details, figurative language, vivid description, dialogue, pacing, and plot development) in the composition.
Conventions
Demonstrate command of standard English grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, and usage.
There are few, if any, negligible errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage.
There are occasional minor errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage.
There are some significant errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage.
There are frequent significant errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage.
There are consistent significant errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage.
Think About Your Writing
Reply to reflection questions thoroughly and thoughtfully.
Demonstrates thoughtful reflection; consistently includes insights, observations, and/or examples in all responses. Answers all reflection questions effectively, following or exceeding response length guidelines.
Demonstrates thoughtful reflection; includes multiple insights, observations, and/or examples. Answers all reflection questions effectively, following response length guidelines.
Primarily demonstrates thoughtful reflection, but some responses are lacking in detail or insight. Answers all reflection questions, primarily following response length guidelines.
Shows limited reflection; the majority of responses are lacking in detail or insight. Answers reflection questions inadequately; may not answer all of the questions and/or may not follow response length guidelines.
Does not answer the majority of reflection questions, or the majority of answers do not follow response length guidelines
Touchstone 2.1: Comparison/Contrast Essay
Advance (90-100)
Proficient (80-89)
Acceptable (70-79)
Needs Improvement (50-69)
Non-Performance (0-49)
Comparison/Contrast Essay Elements
Properly apply elements of a comparison/contrast essay.
Makes a clear and meaningful connection between two subjects related to one of the writing prompts; effectively organizes body paragraphs in one of the two prescribed ways and consistently uses transitional words or phrases to comparison/contrast ideas.
Makes a clear connection between two subjects related to one of the writing prompts; organizes body paragraphs in one of the two prescribed ways and often uses transitional words or phrases to comparison/contrast ideas.
Makes a predominately clear connection between two subjects related to one of the writing prompts; organizes body paragraphs in one of the two prescribed ways and occasionally uses transitional words or phrases to comparison/contrast ideas.
Makes a connection between two subjects related to one of the writing prompts, but the connection is not very clear or lacks meaning; attempts to organize body paragraphs in one of the two prescribed ways, but organization could use some work. May occasionally use transitional words or phrases to comparison/contrast ideas.
Does not make a connection between two subjects related to one of the writing prompts; the essay lacks organization and words or phrases characteristic of a comparison/contrast essay.
Thesis Statement
State the focused central claim of the essay with the clear purpose of comparing/contrasting two subjects.
Has a clear, focused, and detailed thesis expressed in a single sentence that states the central claim of the essay; the thesis statement effectively communicates the two subjects that will be compared or contrasted and the two or three main points of comparison/contrast.
Has a clear and focused thesis expressed in a single sentence that states the central claim of the essay; the thesis statement communicates the two subjects that will be compared or contrasted and the two or three main points of comparison/contrast.
Has an acceptable working thesis that states a claim, but it may be somewhat unclear or unfocused or composed of more than one sentence; the thesis statement somewhat communicates the two subjects that will be compared or contrasted and the two or three main points of comparison/contrast.
Has a working thesis, but it is not clear and/or focused and/or it does not state a claim; the two subjects being compared or contrasted and points of comparison/contrast may not be clearly articulated.
Does not have an identifiable working thesis and/or the thesis is extremely unclear or unfocused; there are no subjects being compared or contrasted.
Organization
Exhibit competent organization, flow, and writing techniques.
Includes all of the required components of an essay, including an introduction with a strong thesis, an adequate number of body paragraphs (4-6), each with an effective topic sentence and a conclusion with an effective concluding statement; the sequence of sentences and paragraphs is logical.
Includes all of the required components of an essay, including an introduction with a thesis, an adequate number of body paragraphs (4-6), each with a topic sentence and a conclusion with a concluding statement; the sequence of sentences and paragraphs is predominantly logical.
Includes all of the required components of an essay, including an introduction with a thesis, an adequate number of body paragraphs (4-6), each with a topic sentence and a conclusion with a concluding statement, but some components may be ineffective; the sequence of sentences and paragraphs is somewhat logical.
Is missing one of the required components of an essay or most of the components are ineffective; the sequence of sentences and/or paragraphs is frequently illogical.
Is missing multiple required components of an essay or all of the components are ineffective; the sequence of sentences and/or paragraphs is consistently illogical.
Style and Tone
Establish an informative tone and make thoughtful choices.
Demonstrates thoughtful and effective word choices and uses a wide variety of sentence structures; establishes a consistently objective and impersonal tone that is appropriate to an informative essay.
Demonstrates effective word choices and uses a variety of sentence structures; establishes an objective and impersonal tone that is appropriate to an informative essay, with occasional minor exceptions.
Demonstrates generally-effective style choices, but may include poor word choice and/or repetitive sentence structures; primarily establishes an objective and impersonal tone that is appropriate to an informative essay; however, some sections express bias or include personal observations.
Frequently includes poor word choices and/or repetitive sentence structures; primarily establishes a tone that is subjective and personal observations and opinions are expressed frequently.
Consistently demonstrates poor word choices and/or repetitive sentence structures; tone is consistently subjective and the essay is dominated by personal observations and opinions.
Conventions
Demonstrate command of standard English grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, and usage.
There may be a few negligible errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage.
There are occasional minor errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage.
There are some significant errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage.
There are frequent significant errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage.
There are consistent significant errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage.
Think About Your Writing
Reply to reflection questions thoroughly and thoughtfully.
Demonstrates thoughtful reflection; consistently includes insights, observations, and/or examples in all responses; answers all reflection questions effectively, following or exceeding response length guidelines.
Demonstrates thoughtful reflection; includes multiple insights, observations, and/or examples; answers all reflection questions effectively, following response length guidelines.
Primarily demonstrates thoughtful reflection, but some responses are lacking in detail or insight; answers all reflection questions, primarily following response length guidelines.
Shows limited reflection; the majority of responses are lacking in detail or insight; answers reflection questions inadequately: may not answer all of the questions and/or may not follow response length guidelines.
Does not answer the majority of reflection questions or the majority of answers do not follow response length guidelines
Touchstone 2.2: Informative Essay Draft
Advance (90-100)
Proficient (80-89)
Acceptable (70-79)
Needs Improvement (50-69)
Non-Performance (0-49)
Image Analysis
Prompt A: Analyze an advertisement using parts to draw conclusions.
Consistently goes beyond description to analyze the design choices made in the advertisement, including layout, color schemes, text, and/or other design components; effectively draws conclusions about the intended audience, and the likely impact and effectiveness of the advertisement.
Primarily goes beyond description to analyze the design choices made in the advertisement, including layout, color schemes, text, and/or other design components; draws conclusions about the intended audience, and the likely impact and effectiveness of the advertisement.
Includes some analysis of the design choices made in the advertisement (e.g., layout, color schemes, text, and/or other design components), but focuses primarily on description; somewhat effectively draws conclusions about the intended audience, and the likely impact and effectiveness of the advertisement.
Focuses heavily on description; analysis of the design choices made in the advertisement is limited or absent; conclusions about the intended audience, and the likely impact and effectiveness of the advertisement are very limited.
Does not describe or analyze the advertisement; does not draw conclusions about the advertisement.
Extended Definition Essay
Prompt B: Define a meaningful word or concept in a unique or compelling way.
Defines a meaningful and nuanced word or concept in a coherent and compelling way, consistently using critical thinking and thoughtful discussion to explore the definition; consistently goes beyond traditional definitions to define or redefine the word in a new and unique way.
Defines a meaningful and nuanced word or concept in a coherent way, primarily using critical thinking and thoughtful discussion to explore the definition; primarily goes beyond traditional definitions to define or redefine the word in a new and unique way.
Defines a meaningful and nuanced word or concept adequately, but only sometimes uses critical thinking and thoughtful discussion to explore the definition; only sometimes goes beyond traditional definitions to define or redefine the word in a new and unique way.
Defines a word or concept, although critical thinking and thoughtful examination are largely absent; often relies too much on the traditional or dictionary definition and does not sufficiently explore a new or unique definition.
Does not define a word or concept from the list provided and/or does not explore the definition in a thoughtful or critical manner; relies almost entirely on the traditional or dictionary definition.
Working Thesis
State the focused central claim of the essay.
Has a clear, focused, and detailed working thesis that is expressed in a single sentence that states the central claim of the essay.
Has a clear and focused working thesis that is expressed in a single sentence that states the central claim of the essay.
Has an acceptable working thesis that states a claim, but it may be unclear or unfocused, or consist of more than one sentence.
Has a working thesis, but it is not clear and/or focused and/or it does not state a claim.
Does not have an identifiable working thesis and/or the thesis is extremely unclear or unfocused.
Organization
Exhibit competent organization, flow, and writing techniques.
Includes all of the required components of an essay, including an introduction with a strong thesis; an adequate number of body paragraphs (3-6), each with an effective topic sentence; and a conclusion with an effective concluding statement; the sequence of sentences and paragraphs is logical and flows well.
Includes all of the required components of an essay, including an introduction with a thesis; an adequate number of body paragraphs (3-6), each with a topic sentence; and a conclusion with a concluding statement; the sequence of sentences and paragraphs is predominantly logical and flows well.
Includes all of the required components of an essay, including an introduction with a thesis; an adequate number of body paragraphs (3-6), each with a topic sentence; and a conclusion with a concluding statement; however, some components may be ineffective; the sequence of sentences and paragraphs is somewhat logical, and may lack good flow.
Is missing one of the required components of an essay or most of the components are ineffective; the sequence of sentences and/or paragraphs is frequently illogical and lacks flow.
Is missing multiple required components of an essay or all of the components are ineffective; the sequence of sentences and/or paragraphs is consistently illogical and there is no flow.
Style and Tone
Establish a consistent, informative tone and make thoughtful choices.
Demonstrates thoughtful and effective word choices and uses a wide variety of sentence structures; establishes a consistently unbiased and impersonal tone that is appropriate for an informative essay.
Demonstrates effective word choices and uses a variety of sentence structures; establishes an unbiased and impersonal tone that is appropriate for an informative essay, with occasional minor exceptions.
Demonstrates generally effective style choices, but may include poor word choice, and/or repetitive sentence structures; primarily establishes an unbiased and impersonal tone that is appropriate for an informative essay; but some sections express bias or include personal observations.
Frequently includes poor word choices, and/or repetitive sentence structures; primarily establishes a tone that is biased, and personal observations and opinions are expressed frequently.
Consistently demonstrates poor word choices and/or repetitive sentence structures; tone is consistently biased and the essay is dominated by personal observations and opinions.
Focus
Include relevant details and draw effective connections.
Details are relevant and support the purpose of the essay; the writer consistently makes effective connections between the supporting details and the working thesis.
Details are relevant and support the purpose of the essay; the writer makes some effective connections between the supporting details and the working thesis.
Details are predominantly relevant and generally support the purpose of the essay, though some details may be irrelevant and/or distracting.
Details are often irrelevant and frequently distract from the purpose of the essay.
Details are irrelevant and distract from the purpose of the essay.
Conventions
Demonstrate command of standard English grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, and usage.
There may be a few negligible errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage.
There are occasional minor errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage.
There are some significant errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage.
There are frequent significant errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage.
There are consistent significant errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage.
Think About Your Writing
Answer reflection questions thoroughly and thoughtfully.
Demonstrates thoughtful reflection; consistently includes insights, observations, and/or examples in all responses; answers all reflection questions effectively, following or exceeding response length guidelines.
Demonstrates thoughtful reflection; includes multiple insights, observations, and/or examples; answers all reflection questions effectively, following response length guidelines.
Primarily demonstrates thoughtful reflection, but some responses are lacking in detail or insight; answers all reflection questions, primarily following response length guidelines.
Shows limited reflection; the majority of responses are lacking in detail or insight; answers reflection questions inadequately: may not answer all of the questions and/or may not follow response length guidelines.
Does not answer the majority of reflection questions or the majority of answers do not follow response length guidelines
Touchstone 3: Informative Essay Revision
Advance (90-100)
Proficient (80-89)
Acceptable (70-79)
Needs Improvement (50-69)
Non-Performance (0-49)
Revising and Editing
Demonstrate comprehensive “re-visioning” and sentence-level edits.
There is evidence of comprehensive re-visioning of the draft essay, including adjustments to organization, focus and clarity where needed or appropriate. There is evidence of comprehensive edits to the draft essay, including adjustments to word choice, sentence completeness, sentence variety, and/or style where needed or appropriate.
There is evidence of significant re-visioning of the draft essay, including adjustments to organization, focus, and clarity where needed or appropriate. There is evidence of substantial edits to the draft essay, including adjustments to word choice, sentence completeness, sentence variety, and/or style where needed or appropriate.
There is evidence of some re-visioning of the draft essay, including adjustments to organization, focus and clarity where needed or appropriate; however, a few areas need additional revision. There is evidence of some edits to the draft essay, including adjustments to word choice, sentence completeness, sentence variety, and/or style where needed/appropriate; however, some issues were overlooked.
There is little evidence of re-visioning of the draft essay, such that multiple areas in need of changes are unaltered. There is little evidence of editing in the draft essay, such that many errors remain.
Revisions are absent or did not address problems in the essay. Edits are absent or did not address the problems in the essay.
Image Analysis
Prompt A: Analyze an advertisement using parts to draw conclusions.
Consistently goes beyond description to analyze the design choices made in the advertisement, including layout, color schemes, text, and/or other design components. Effectively draws conclusions about the intended audience, and the likely impact and effectiveness of the advertisement.
Primarily goes beyond description to analyze the design choices made in the advertisement, including layout, color schemes, text, and/or other design components. Draws conclusions about the intended audience, and the likely impact and effectiveness of the advertisement.
Includes some analysis of the design choices made in the advertisement (i.e., layout, color schemes, text, and/or other design components), but focuses primarily on description. Somewhat effectively draws conclusions about the intended audience, and the likely impact and effectiveness of the advertisement.
Focuses heavily on description. Analysis of the design choices made in the advertisement is limited or absent. Conclusions about the intended audience, and the likely impact and effectiveness of the advertisement are very limited.
Does not describe or analyze the advertisement. Does not draw conclusions about the advertisement.
Extended Definition Essay
Prompt B – Define a meaningful word or concept in a unique or compelling way.
Defines a meaningful and nuanced word or concept in a coherent and compelling way, consistently using critical thinking and thoughtful discussion to explore the definition. Consistently goes beyond traditional definitions to define the word in a new and unique way.
Defines a meaningful and nuanced word or concept in a coherent way, primarily using critical thinking and thoughtful discussion to explore the definition. Primarily goes beyond traditional definitions to define the word in a new and unique way.
Defines a meaningful and nuanced word or concept adequately, but only sometimes uses critical thinking and thoughtful discussion to explore the definition. Only sometimes goes beyond traditional definitions to define the word in a new and unique way.
Defines a word or concept, although critical thinking and thoughtful discussion are largely absent. Often relies too much on the traditional or dictionary definition, and does not sufficiently explore a new or unique definition.
Does not define a word or concept from the list provided and/or does not explore the definition in a thoughtful or critical manner. Relies almost entirely on the traditional or dictionary definition.
Thesis Statement
State the focused central claim of the essay.
Has a clear, focused, and detailed working thesis that is expressed in a single sentence that states the central claim of the essay.
Has a clear and focused working thesis that is expressed in a single sentence that states the central claim of the essay.
Has an acceptable working thesis that states a claim, but it may be somewhat unclear or unfocused, or composed of more than one sentence.
Has a working thesis, but it is not clear and/or focused, and/or it does not state a claim.
Does not have an identifiable working thesis, and/or the thesis is extremely unclear or unfocused.
Organization
Exhibit competent organization, flow, and writing techniques.
Includes all required components of an essay, including an introduction with a thesis; an adequate number of body paragraphs (3-6,) each with a topic sentence; and a conclusion with a concluding statement. The sequence of sentences and paragraphs is logical and flows well.
Essay includes an introductory paragraph, a concluding paragraph, and an appropriate number of body paragraphs. The sequence of sentences and paragraphs is logical.
The sequence of sentences and paragraphs is predominantly logical.
The sequence of sentences and/or paragraphs is frequently illogical.
The sequence of sentences and/or paragraphs is consistently illogical.
Style and Tone
Establish a consistent, informative tone and make thoughtful choices.
Demonstrates thoughtful and effective word choices, avoids redundancy, and uses a wide variety of sentence structures. Establishes a consistently unbiased and impersonal tone that is appropriate to an informative essay.
Demonstrates effective word choices, primarily avoids redundancy, and uses a variety of sentence structures. Establishes an unbiased and impersonal tone that is appropriate to an informative essay, with occasional minor exceptions.
Demonstrates generally effective style choices, but may include occasional redundancies, poor word choices, and/or repetitive sentence structures. Primarily establishes an unbiased and impersonal tone that is appropriate to an informative essay; however some sections express bias or include personal observations.
Frequently includes poor word choices, redundancies, and/or repetitive sentence structures. Primarily establishes a tone that is biased, and personal observations and opinions are expressed frequently.
Consistently demonstrates poor word choices, redundancies, and/or repetitive sentence structures. Tone is consistently biased and the essay is dominated by personal observations and opinions.
Focus
Include relevant details, effective connections.
Details are relevant and support the purpose of the essay. The writer consistently makes effective connections between the supporting details and the working thesis.
Details are relevant and support the purpose of the essay. The writer makes some effective connections between the supporting details and the working thesis.
Details are predominantly relevant and generally support the purpose of the essay, though some details may be irrelevant and/or distracting.
Details are often irrelevant and frequently distract from the purpose of the essay.
Details are irrelevant and distract from the purpose of the essay.
Conventions and Proofreading
Demonstrate command of standard English grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, and usage.
There may be a few negligible errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage.
There are occasional minor errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage.
There are some significant errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage.
There are frequent significant errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage.
There are consistent significant errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage.
Think About Your Writing
Answer reflection questions thoroughly and thoughtfully.
Demonstrates thoughtful reflection; consistently includes insights, observations, and/or examples in all responses. Answers all reflection questions effectively, following or exceeding response length guidelines.
Demonstrates thoughtful reflection; includes multiple insights, observations, and/or examples. Answers all reflection questions effectively, following response length guidelines.
Primarily demonstrates thoughtful reflection, but some responses lack detail or insight. Answers all reflection questions, primarily following response length guidelines.
Shows limited reflection; most responses lack detail or insight. Answers reflection questions inadequately: may not answer all of the questions and/or may not follow response length guidelines.
Does not answer the majority of reflection questions or the majority of answers do not follow response length guidelines.
Touchstone 4: Argumentative Essay
Advance (90-100)
Proficient (80-89)
Acceptable (70-79)
Needs Improvement (50-69)
Non-Performance (0-49)
Argumentative Topic and Thesis Statement
Take a clear position on a debatable topic.
Includes an argumentative thesis that takes a well-articulated, clear, specific position on one side of a debatable issue.
Includes an argumentative thesis that takes a clear, specific position on one side of a debatable issue.
Includes an argumentative thesis that takes a clear position on one side of a debatable issue; however, it lacks specificity.
Includes an argumentative thesis on a debatable topic; however, it lacks specificity and/or does not take a clear position.
Does not include a thesis, includes a thesis that does not take a position, and/or the topic is not debatable.
Argument Development and Support
Have a clear argument on a debatable topic and sufficient support
Details are highly relevant and clearly support the argument of the essay. Argument is thoroughly developed; the argument is consistently and effectively supported using rhetorical appeals and source material.
Details are relevant and support the argument of the essay. Argument is well developed; the argument is supported using rhetorical appeals and source material.
Details are predominantly relevant and generally support the argument, though some details may be irrelevant and/or distracting. Argument is not fully developed; the argument is supported by rhetorical appeals and source material; however, some aspects of the argument or support are neglected.
Details are often irrelevant and frequently distract from the argument of the essay. Argument is poorly developed; there is little evidence of rhetorical appeals and/or source material support.
Details are irrelevant and distract from the argument. Argument is not developed and/or the composition is not argumentative.
Organization
Exhibit competent organization and writing techniques.
Includes all of the required components of an argumentative research paper, including an introduction with relevant and engaging background information and an argumentative thesis, an adequate number of body paragraphs each with a topic sentence, a body paragraph addressing counterargument(s), and a conclusion with a concluding statement.
Includes all of the required components of an argumentative research paper, including an introduction with background information, an argumentative thesis, an adequate number of body paragraphs each with a topic sentence, a body paragraph addressing counterargument(s), and a conclusion with a concluding statement.
Includes nearly all of the required components of an argumentative research paper; however, one component is missing.
Includes most of the required components of an argumentative research paper, but is lacking two components. Sequences ideas and paragraphs such that the connections between ideas (within and between paragraphs) are sometimes unclear and the reader may have difficulty following the progression of the argument.
Lacks several or all of the components of an argumentative research paper. Sequences ideas and paragraphs such that the connections between ideas (within and between paragraphs) are often unclear and the reader has difficulty following the progression of the argument.
Flow
Establish and maintain a logical flow.
Sequences ideas and paragraphs logically and uses smooth transitions (within and between paragraphs) such that the reader can easily follow the progression of ideas.
Sequences ideas and paragraphs logically and uses transitions (within and between paragraphs) such that the reader can easily follow the progression of ideas.
Primarily sequences ideas and paragraphs logically and uses sufficient transitions (within and between paragraphs) such that the reader can generally follow the progression of ideas.
The progression of ideas is often difficult to follow, due to poor sequencing, ineffective transitions, and/or insufficient transitions.
The progression of ideas is consistently difficult to follow, due to poor sequencing and lack of transitions.
Research
Incorporate sources through effective quotations, paraphrases, and summaries.
Cites all outside sources appropriately, incorporates sources smoothly and effectively through direct quotation, paraphrase, or summary. References 2-4 credible primary or secondary sources.
Primarily cites outside sources appropriately, incorporates sources effectively through direct quotation, paraphrase, or summary. References 2-4 credible primary or secondary sources.
Generally cites outside sources appropriately, primarily incorporates sources effectively through direct quotation, paraphrase, or summary. References 2-4 credible primary or secondary sources.
Cites outside sources, but most sources are cited improperly; generally incorporates sources through direct quotation, paraphrase, or summary. References 2-4 primary or secondary sources, but some sources may not be effective or appropriate for the essay’s argument.
Does not cite sources, or citation is consistently inappropriate. Does not reference sources and/or sources are not credible or appropriate.
Style
Establish a consistent, informative tone and make thoughtful stylistic choices.
Demonstrates thoughtful and effective word choices, avoids redundancy and imprecise language, and uses a wide variety of sentence structures.
Demonstrates effective word choices, primarily avoids redundancy and imprecise language, and uses a variety of sentence structures.
Demonstrates generally effective style choices, but may include occasional redundancies, imprecise language, poor word choice, and/or repetitive sentence structures.
Frequently includes poor word choices, redundancies, imprecise language, and/or repetitive sentence structures.
Excessively demonstrates poor word choices, redundancies, imprecise language, and/or repetitive sentence structures.
Conventions
Follow conventions for standard English.
There may be a few negligible errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage.
There are occasional minor errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage.
There are some significant errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage.
There are frequent significant errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage.
There are consistent significant errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, capitalization, formatting, and usage.
Formatting
Execute formatting according to requirements.
Consistently adheres to APA formatting requirements for in-text citations and the References page.
Primarily adheres to APA formatting requirements for in-text citations and the References page, such that formatting errors are minimal.
Adequately adheres to APA formatting requirements for in-text citations and the References page, such that formatting errors are occasional.
Inadequately adheres to APA formatting requirements for in-text citations and the References page, such that formatting errors are common.
Does not adhere to APA formatting requirements for in-text citations and the References page, such that formatting errors are pervasive.
Think About Your Writing
Reflect on progression and development throughout the course.
Demonstrates thoughtful reflection; consistently includes insights, observations, and/or examples in all responses. Answers all reflection questions effectively, following or exceeding response length guidelines.
Demonstrates thoughtful reflection; includes multiple insights, observations, and/or examples. Answers all reflection questions effectively, following response length guidelines.
Primarily demonstrates thoughtful reflection, but some responses are lacking in detail or insight. Answers all reflection questions, primarily following response length guidelines.
Shows limited reflection; the majority of responses are lacking in detail or insight. Answers reflection questions inadequately: may not answer all of the questions and/or may not follow response length guidelines.
Does not answer the majority of reflection questions or the majority of answers do not follow response length guidelines.